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  • Our biology is responsible for our personalitly and behavior. Social factors have minimal effect.
  • The mind and the brain are the same, both should be studied in a biological way, not concentrating on unobservable mental processes
  • Our genes have adapted to the environment, they have evolved to give us the best chance of survival
  • Characteristics are due to genetic make-up e.g intelligence


  • Reductionist, doesnt take into account social factors or mental processes
  • Deterministic, doesnt account for a persons choice of behaviour
  • Scientific methods, use of lab experiments means firm conclusions about cause and effect can be made
  • Doesnt take into account for unconscious mind psychodynamisists would say this is a major downfall
  • Over simplified reduces behaviour to terms of chemicals and nerves
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  • Personality is made of 3 components: Id (desire principle), Ego (reality principle), Superego (morality principle)
  • There are 3 states of consciousness: Conscious (here and now), Pre-conscious (information that can be recalled), Unconscious (unaccsesible)
  • The Ego uses defence mechanisms to protect you from traumatic experiences e.g denial repression and regression
  • Children develop in stages, resolving conflicts in each stage to shape personality
  • Therapy should be impersonal you should not have any relationship with the patient


  • Revolutionary Frued was the first person to consider an unconscious mind
  • Unfalsifiable His theories cannot be proved correct or false, due to them being unobservable, making them unscientific
  • Unscientific The methods he used were often subjective (dream analysis) 
  • Ideographic He used a case study methods meaning his results cannot be generalised 
  • Reductionist doesnt take into account for social factors later in life having an effect on you
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  • We are born with only innate reflexes, everything is learnt from the environment
  • Conditioning determines behaviour, making it less or more likely to be repeated
  • The mind is a black box, we cannot scientifically study mental processes so we should only study the behaviours the produce
  • Everything should be scientific, meaning easily repeatable with reliable results 


  • Deterministic, doesnt consider choice or free will, assumes everyone is passive to conditioning
  • Reductionist, doesnt consider biological or unconscious factors
  • Scientific menthod, results are reliable and easily repeatable
  • Lab conditions, experiments are often done in lab conditions which lack ecological validity 
  • Over-simplified, doesnt consider mental processes
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  • Mental processes should be studied to understand things like memory and vicarious reinforcement
  • Experiences in the environment shape behaviour, biology has minimal effect
  • People can learn through observation and imitation from models
  • We imitate people who we can identify with role models
  • Learning can be through direct or indirect (vicarious) reinforcement


  • Scientific methods results are reliable
  • Lab experiments mean low ecological validity a lab is an artificial environment
  • Reductionist looks at mental processes but not how they work
  • Deterministic assumes everyone is passive to conditioning and reinforcement
  • Doesnt explain spontaneous behaviour 
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This is great, thank you soo much. it is just like the exam style. PSYCHOLOGY EXAM TOMMOROW. i'm glad that i've have just found this :) only downfall is that cognitive approach and humanistic approach isn't there, other than that your work is much appreciated


nice! :)

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