General Memory Questions
1) What is the capacity, duration and method of encoding in STM?
2) What is the capacity, duration and method of encoding in LTM?
3) Describe the research into encoding in STM by Conrad (1964)?
4) What Did Conrad find from this research? 5) What did Conrad’s research suggest?
6) Describe the research into encoding in STM by Shulman (1970)?
7) What did Shulman find from this research? 8) What does this research suggest?
9) Describe the research into capacity in STM by miller (1956)?
10) What did miller find from this research 11) What did millers research suggest?
12) Describe the technique of The Brown Peterson Technique (1959)
13) What was found from this research? 14) What does this research suggest?
15) describe the research into encoding in LTM by Baddeley (1966)?
16) What did Baddeley find from this research?
17) What does this research suggest?
1) Capacity: 7+/-2 items Duration: 20 seconds Encoding: mainly Acoustic
2) Capacity: Unlimited Duration: Lifetime Encoding: Mainly Semantic
3) Participants given a list of consonants and had ¾ of a second to look and them, they were then asked to recall the letters they has seen
4) The majority of mistakes were with letters that sounded the same such as P’s were mistaken for B’s
5) Visually presented data is encoded into acoustic data
6) Participants presented with a list of 10 words, recall was then tested using cue or probe words which were of 3 types. Some of the probe words were homonyms ( words which sounds the same) some words were Synonyms ( different words with similar meanings) some of the worlds used were identical to the words used on the list
7) Similar numbers of errors of recall from the stimulus was made from homonym and synonym probes
8) That semantic encoding as well as acoustic encoding occurs in STM
9) Participants given sentences of varied lengths that approximated true English, they were then asked to recall the words from the sentence in the correct order
10) The more sense the sentence made the better the recall
11) semantic and grammatical structure which is probably stored in LTM is used to increase the amount of information stored in STM by combining them into larger chunks
12) Prevents information from being continually rehearsed is STM in order to test how long information will be retained.
13) Information can be stored for roughly 15 to 30 seconds if rehearsal is prevented
14) Information from STM decays rapidly unless rehearsal of the information occurs
15) Participants were presented with 4 lists with a number of words to remember. Participants had to recall as many of the words they possibly could immediately and then try again 20 minutes later. List one contained similar sounding words, list 2 contained non-similar sounding words, list 3 contained words with similar meanings and list 4 contained words with non-similar meanings
16) Immediate recall was better from list 2 than for list 1 with little difference between 3 and 4. After 20 minutes they recalled list 4 better than list 3 with little difference for 1 and 2.
17) SRM tends to store information according to semantics rather than just soun