Milgrim - Methodology - Lab experiments.
The methodology Milgrim used to collect his data was lab experiments, an advantage of using a lab experiment was that it was in controlled conditions, this allowed standardised procedures, because the experiment was in standardised procedures it was easy to replicate as well as high control of extraneous variables allows us to establish cause and effect, the actor in Milgrims study wore a white lab coat to perceive an authority figure can effect obedience even if the command requires destructive behaviour. He had extraneous variables so was able to control the age and gender type of participants.
A disadvantage of using a lab experiment in Milgrims study was that is lacked ecological validity and based in an artificial environment, because people know there is an experiment they may act a certain way, which is demand characteristic. This does not reflect the Nazi's actions however, because if the Nazi's where to not obey they could have been killed themselves.
(Always Refer to Milgrims study)
Milgrim - Data - Quantitative and Qualitative.
Quantitative date was gathered in Milgrims research for example 65% of participants went up to the highest voltage, which was 450 volts, non of the participants stopped before 300 volts an advantage of using quantitative data was that it was easy to establish pattern and Milgrim would find it easy to analyse and compare it to the research.
An example of qualitative data that Milgrim used in his research was the notes Milgrim took and the things participants said during their interview, there insight. An advantage of gathering qualitative data is they observes them doing certain actions like trembling, digging their nails in to flesh, this allows in-depth data to be collected.
(Refer to Milgrim)
Milgrim - Ethical Issues
An Ethical Issue Milgrim breached in his research was deception, Physical/Psychological harm and refused the right to withdraw.
Deception - Was Breached by Milgrim lying to his participants saying the experiment was for memory and learning, Milgrim over came this by 'Dehoaxing' them after the experiment.
Psychological harm - Was breached as it caused a large sum of stress to participants and 3 people had seizures one was so bad the experiment had to be stopped. Milgrim could have over come Psychological harm by offering participants counselling due to trembling, sweating and biting their nails.
Milgrim gave prompts to participants for example 'The experiment requires you to go on' refusing them the right to withdraw.
(Always relate to Milgrim)
Milgrim - Sample.
In Milgrims Research he used 40 males aged 20-50 who were Americans, as advantage of using a sample in Milgrims research was because he tried to mirror the age and gender of Nazi officers and wanted to test the 'Germans are different' hypothesis, in relation to Americans.
A disadvantage of using a sample was the fact it was to narrow, the data could not be explained to women, non Americans, nor men of alternative ages, he wanted to show that anyone would act the same way. It was likely similar types of people would volunteer for Milgrims experiment, it was ethnocentric, only one ethical group, it was andocentric, only looked at males and ages were bias, so wasn't generalisable to everyone.