Psychology- Attachments- Effects of Daycare

Some revision notes on the study by Campbell et al. It seems to be the only in depth study we've learnt about in daycare, so I'm guessing that if there is a 12 mark question on it, this is the only single study with enough detail to be used.

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  • Created by: Eleanor
  • Created on: 29-12-10 09:39

Campbell, Lamb and Hwang

Campbell, Lamb and Hwang- 2000

  • Where?

Where were the children studied from, and why were they being followed?

  • Compared development from which ages?

The development in different areas was compared with children raised at home.

  • Initial assessment took place where?

The children were first assessed when and where?

  • Followed up at which ages?

The ages at which they were again looked at- results could be compared.


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Campbell, Lamb and Hwang- Answers


The children studied were from Sweden and were receiving different forms of daycare.


They were compared from 18 months up to adolescence.

Initial Assessment was where?

They were first assessed at home before they started daycare- as a control.

Followed up at which ages?

They were followed up at the ages of 2 ½, 3 ½, 6 ½, 8 ½ and 15.

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Campbell, Lamb and Hwang

What did they find?

They discovered a complex relationship between the time spent in daycare and social competence;

Children below the age of 3 ½ who spent a few, long days in day care were less socially competent than children who spent more days, but a shorter length of time in daycare.

What did they conclude?

The concluded that over-long days in daycare made children tired and frustrated, which affected their interactions with others. However, children who attended daycare for more, shorter days did get the benefit of increased contact time without the variable of tiredness.

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Campbell, Lamb and Hwang

Quality of Care

Children who attended high quality day care before 3 ½ were more socially competent.

The advantage remained with the children up to adolescence.


The concluded that the key period for the development of social skills is up to 3 ½.

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Evaluation- the Correlation Method

Campbell et al used a type of study called the "Correlation Method"

  • We cannot claim "cause and effect" because the researcher did not manipulate the variables themselves.


  • However, a correlation can show a clear relationship between two variables and the strength of that relationship.
  • Campbell et al followed their studies over many years recording data as it happened, starting from 18 months. This is called a prospective study. This is more reliable than a retrospective study, where people are asked to recall what happened. This relies on their memory being 100% accurate, which, as I hope you know by now, is highly unlikely.

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