Attachment 

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  • Attachment
    • Close emotional tie characterised by love, warmth and affection
    • Learning Theory
      • Classical conditioning
        • Pavlovs Dogs
          • food unconditioned stimulus
            • relief from hunger
              • attachment formed with feeder
      • Operant conditioning
        • hunger is a drive state
          • feeding is drive reduction
        • food is primary reinforcer
          • food provider is secondary reinforcer
            • these reinforcer's are associated and attachment formed
      • Social Learning Theory
        • Bandura
          • OMIT
    • Bowlby
      • Evolution
        • Innate
        • increases chances of survival
      • Monotropy
        • attachment to primary caregiver
        • need for warm intimate relationship ith one contimuous carer
      • Internal working model
        • Child's relationship provides a model/ template for future
        • Continuity hypothesis
          • early relationships effect later relationships
      • Continuity hypothesis
        • early relationships effect later relationships
      • Proximity
        • attachment promotes proximity to caregiver
      • Cognitive development
        • strong attachment essential for cog dev
        • provides a safe secure base to explore from
      • Critical period
        • window of opportunity for attachment to form
    • Scaffer and Emerson
      • Stages of attachment
        • Indiscriminate
          • 0-6 months
        • Discriminate
          • 7-18 months
        • Multiple
          • 18 months +
    • Types of Attachment
      • Secure
        • explore freely, engage with strangers, visibly upset, happy on return
      • Insecure avoidant
        • ignore/avoid caregiver, not care whe  gone or return
      • Insecure resistant
        • wary of strangers, highly distressed, not calmed by caregiver
      • STRANGE SITUATION
        • Cultural Varitions
          • Van Izjendoorn + Kroonenberg
            • Meta-analysis of 32 studies over 8 countries
              • mostly secure, avoidant resistant altered between countries
          • Takahashi
            • 60 middle class Japanese infants and mothers
              • 68% secure, 32% resistant, 0% avoidant
    • Disruption of attachment
      • Privation
        • never having formed attachment
        • Harlows Monkeys
          • wire mother w/ bottle vs cloth mother w/o bottle
            • preferred cloth mother for comfort
          • never recovered
        • Genie
        • Institutional care
          • Hodges + Tizard
            • 65 children, privation, by 4 24 adopted, 15 returned home, rest stayed in care
              • tested for social + emotional ability at 4,8, 16
                • at 4, none formed attachments
                • at 8 attention seeing and difficulty in social relationships
                • at 16, experienced most instability, showed some difficulty in lter attachments
          • Goldfarb
            • early fostered vs late fostered
              • early fostered faired better physically, socially, emotionally, cognitively
      • Depriation
        • formed a tie but the tie is broken
        • Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis
          • Bowlby
          • First 3 years most important
            • Evidenced by Rutter
              • Romanian orphans, adopted later = high level of dis inhibited attachment
          • Separation 6 months+ - psychological trauma
          • separation leads to juvenile delinquency or affectionless psycho- pathology
        • Evidence
          • Spitz+ Wolf
            • 123 babies separated from prison mothers
              • babies cried more, lost appetite + weight
                • when returned to mother, behavious returned to normal
      • Institutional care
        • Hodges + Tizard
          • 65 children, privation, by 4 24 adopted, 15 returned home, rest stayed in care
            • tested for social + emotional ability at 4,8, 16
              • at 4, none formed attachments
              • at 8 attention seeing and difficulty in social relationships
              • at 16, experienced most instability, showed some difficulty in lter attachments
        • Goldfarb
          • early fostered vs late fostered
            • early fostered faired better physically, socially, emotionally, cognitively
    • Daycare
      • Types: nurseries, childminders, nanny, informal
      • Peer relations
        • EPPE project - 3000 3-7 y/o, home vs daycare
          • high quality daycare = better social development, early start = better socially
        • Shea et al - videotaped 3/4 y/o at playtime, first 10 weeks
          • chlidren become more siciable the longer they are in daycare
        • Alspac - progress of 14000 UK kids, NO negative effects of daycare
        • Tiffany Field- questionnaire, 28 5-8y/o - more friends, 56 11y/o - more extra curricular activities
      • Aggression
        • Nichd- longitudinal, over 2000 American kids from different backgrounds
          • more time in daycare = more aggressive, full time daycare 3x as likely to display behavioural problems
      • Implications
        • Good daycare = low staff to child ratio, small groups, mixed ages, structured, well trained staff
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