Developmental psychology- early social developmental

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Robyn
  • Created on: 18-05-13 13:42
View mindmap
  • Developmental psychology- early social developmental
    • Attachment
      • 2-way enduring emotional tie to a specific person
      • stages
        • new born= attach to anyone
        • baby=  distinguish primary and secondary caretakers
          • accepts care from anyone
        • older= attachment behavior focused on single carer
      • Learning theory
        • belief that children develop attachments to feeders
          • process of association
        • Classical conditioning
          • stimulus associated with a response
          • cupboard love theory
          • Pavlov's dog
        • Operant conditioning
          • learns due to consequences
          • Little Albert
        • Research
          • Schaffer and Emerson
            • mothers interviewed on babies behaviour
              • seperation issues
              • being left alone
              • 39%cases- main carer= not main attachment
            • feeding= not primary explanation of attachment
        • Evaluate
          • cupboard love= wrong way round
            • babies dont live to eat... the eat to live
              • Schaffer
          • attachment= protection not foor
            • Bowlby
          • attachments develop with non-feeders
          • evolutionary aspects
      • Bowlby's theory
        • attachments from an innate ability
          • keep proximity to care givers
        • attachment= human form of imprinting
        • attachment evolved through natural selection
        • social releasers
          • behaviours stimulating adult interaction
        • Evolutionary theory
          • attachment= 2 way complimentary process
          • carers innately respond  to infants' signals
          • babies show monotropy
            • attach to adult that interacts with them most sensitively
        • critical period
          • time within which attachments must be formed
        • Research
          • Lorenz
            • geese
          • Rutter
            • no specific attachment behaviours towards mothers
        • Evaluate
          • Schaffer and Emerson
            • attachment likely= sensitive responsiveness
              • disproves
          • continuity hypothesis :)
    • Types of attachment
      • Strange situation
        • Ainsworth
        • Uganda
        • Baltimore
        • pps= 9-18 months
        • categories
          • proximity and contact seeking behaviours
          • contact maintaining behaviours
          • proximity and interaction avoiding behaviours
          • contact and interaction resisting behaviours
          • search behaviours
      • Attachment styles
        • Securely attached
          • willing to explore
          • high stranger anxiety
          • easy to soothe
          • enthusiastic when carer returns
        • Insecure-avoidant
          • willing to explore
          • low stranger anxiety
          • indifferent to seperation
          • avoid contact when carer returns
        • Insecure resistant
          • not willing to explore
          • high stranger anxiety
          • distress at seperation
          • seek and reject contact at carers return
      • Research
        • Ainsworth et al
          • The Strange Situation
          • 70% of 106 pps= secure attachment
          • 15% of 106 pps= insecure avoidant
          • 15% of 106 pps= insecure resistant
        • Main et al
          • 100% of securely attached before 18 months
            • still securely attached at 6yrs old
          • 75% of anxious-avoidant
            • remained so
          • strange situation= reliable
      • Evaluate
        • paradigm :)
        • Van Ijzendoorn and Schengel :)
          • parental sensitivity determines attachment
        • lacks ecological validity :(
    • Cultural variations
      • Bowlby's theory= attachment should be the same  across cultures
      • cultural variations= environmental factors
      • Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
        • review 32 strange situations
          • 8 countries
        • 2000 pps
        • secure attachment most common
        • Insecure avoidant
          • not common in Japan or Israel
            • 2 Japanese studies
              • 1= no insecure avoidant
              • 2= 15% insecure avoidant
          • insecure resistant was found
            • not common in Japan or Israel
              • 2 Japanese studies
                • 1= no insecure avoidant
                • 2= 15% insecure avoidant
        • differences in cultures and between cultures
      • Evaluate
        • strange situation has different meanings in different cultures
          • childrearing practices need to be scrutinised to interpret findings
        • Okonogi
          • Japanese children are taught to fear and avoid strangers
        • attachment theory = specific to Western Culture
    • Disruption of attachment
      • Bowlby
        • Maternal deprivation hypothesis
          • disruption to attachment incurs serious , irreversible negative effects
        • affectionless psychology
          • lacking a social conscience
        • Research
          • studied 44 thieves
            • compared with non-thieves
          • 32% of thieves= affectionless psychopaths
            • 86% endured maternal seperation
          • 0% of non-thieves were affectionless psychopaths
          • 17% thieves= normal
            • with maternal seperation
          • results= maternal seperation incurs long-term serious consequences
        • Evaluate
          • chilldren's homes/ orphanages
            • provided unstimulating environments= retarded development, not lack of maternal care
          • Bowlby confused privation with deprivation
      • Deprivation
        • seperation from attachment figures
        • 3 components caused by short-term separation
          • 1) protest
          • 2) despair
          • 3) detachment
        • Robertson and Robertson
          • filmed short term separation in hospitals
          • effects were noticeable for long periods after reunion
        • Evaluate
          • R and R= negative effects
            • avoidable, provide children with ulterior attachment
          • research caused radical changes to hospital routines
            • same nurses for children= attachments
          • logical= incurs longer consequences
          • Research allowed development of coping strategies
      • Privation
        • never formed attachments
        • Hodges and Tizard
          • longitudinal study= children with no attachment in care
          • some rehomed, others not
          • non adopted children= social problems
          • adopted= sorted out
        • Czech twins
        • Genie
        • Evaluate
          • case studies= unethical
          • effects= irreversible= false
          • recovery is possible
          • ungeneralisable results
    • Impact of Daycare
      • for daycare arguments
        • high-quality day care= stimulating
        • quality day care= positive effects on social development
        • mothers free to work with lower level stress
      • against daycare arguments
        • separation can lead to privation
        • daycare= inferior to homecare
        • daycare brings negative outcomes
      • Aggression and peer relations
        • NICHD :(
          • avg. 30 hrs+ daycare
            • prone to problem behaviours
        • NICHD :)
          • high levels of daycare
            • low levels of problem behaviour
      • Evaluate
        • aggression= more socialising
        • family factors as well
        • aggressive children= day care, parents need a break
        • peer relations= more socialising
        • bullying- low confidence= bullied

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Attachment resources »