AO1 Cognitive explanation
- acknowledges the role of biological factors - abnormal brain activity producing visual and auditory hallucinations
- Further features emerge as people try to make sense of the hallucinations
1 of 11
AO1 2 - Cognitive explanation
- First experience worrying sensory experiences - turn to others to confirm the validity
- other people fail to confim - believe others are hiding the truth
- Reject feedback from others and develop delusional beliefs that they are being manipulated and persecuted by others.
2 of 11
AO1 3 Life events
- Stressful life events cause the onset of SZ e.g. death of a close relative act as a trigger
- Individual may have a biological predispostition for SZ but only some people with such will develop the disorder - those who experience stressors
3 of 11
AO1 Brown and Birley
- Prior to a SZ episode, patients reported twice as many stressful life events compared to a healthy control group - low and unchanging level of stressful life events
- Illustrates the link
4 of 11
AO2 1 Biological evidence
- Meyer Lindberg - link between excess levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and dysfunctions in working memory
- Working memory dysfunction is associated with the cognitive disorganisation typically found in SZ.
- biological factors underlie some of the early symptoms of SZ
5 of 11
Yellowlees - trialled a machine that can deliever 'virtual auditory and virtual hallucinations.'
Intention to show SZ that their hallucinations are not real.
However, no evidence that this will provide a successful treatment
6 of 11
AO2 2 Retrospective
- Brown and Birley's research is retrospective - data collected after events have occured
- Once a person has developed SZ asked questions about events leading upto the onset.
- Recall would be negatively affected by events surrounding the onset - unreliable
7 of 11
AO2 3 Hirsch et al
- Prospective studies are preferable - studied after the onset of the disorder
- Hirsch - followed 71 SZ patients over a 48 week period.
- Clear that life events made a cumulative contribution in the 12 months preceeding relapse rather than having a more concentrated effect in the period just prior to the episode.
8 of 11
AO2 4 Van Os et al
- Not all research supports life events
- Van Os et al - no link between life events and the onset of SZ.
- Prospective part - patients who had experienced a major life event went on to have a lower incidence of relapse.
9 of 11
AO2 5 Correlational
- research is correlational
- cannot infer a causal relationship between stressful life events and SZ
- early symptoms were the cause of life events e.g. divorce
- may be a consequence rather than a cause
10 of 11
- Biological explanations have better research support
- large body of evidence - role of genetic factors
- Gottesman - greater degree of relatedness the greater risk of SZ
11 of 11