O+E Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 29-05-16 17:05

AO1 - Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

  • Psychodynamic - Sz due to regression o pre-ego state where ID is in charge befroe realistic understanding of world developed and attempts to re-establish ego control - 
  • happens in response ot harsh environment/traumatic event 
  • Sz = infantile stage with symptoms such as delusions of grandeur relfecting primitive conditions and e.g. hallucinations reflecting attempts to re-establish ego control
  • failure of PCG through indequate care to help infant overcome trauma/deal w/ emotions/distinguish between internal + external world to develop sense of self 
  • symptoms of Sz occur in adolescence as threats to fragile sense of self are most likely to occur
  • Cognitive - impaired thought processes characterise Sz - cognitive deficit theories explain Sz due to attention impairment 
  • usually we use selective attention mechanisms to filter incoming stimuli + process them to extract meaning but in SZ patients these are defective so they become overwhelmed with incoming sensory stimuli
  • biology acknowledged to cause original problembut too much sensory info makes person misinterpret causing hallucinations and confuse causaltiy causing delusions 
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AO2 - Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

  • ++ Psychodynamic - intuitive - e.g. if Sz represents regression to pre-ego state - may explain why children also have delusions of grandeur + delusions of control + Fromm-Reichmann 1948 - 'schizophrenogenic mothers/families' that are rejecting/over-protective/dominant/moralistic contribute to SZ - BC they are perhaps more unresponsive + can't help resolve trauma
  • -- Pyschodynamic - Oltmanns et al 1999 found that parents of Sz patients do behave differently to parents of other kind of patients expecially in the presence of their offspring - SUGGESTS they are not helpful in their offspring's struggle with finding their sense of self BUT this could be a consquence of Sz as well as a cause
  • ++ Cognitive - Sz patients perform poorly on info processing tasks such as reaction time/visual tracking/STM - suggests it is attention problem - + Lindenburg et al 2002 - link between dopamine in pre-frontal cortex + working memory 
  • Alternative theory - Biological - genetic similarities - Gottesman - children with 2 Sz parents have a 46% concordance rate - risk of individual developin Sz is directly proportional to amount of genes shared with sufferer - siblings have 9% rate. - SUGGESTS there is clear evidence that there could be a biological cause rather than psychological - even cognitive accepts there may be a biological cause 
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AO3 - Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

  • Nature/Nurture debate not solved as evidence for Psychological and Biological factors is equally convincing - therefore could be diathesis stress model and both contribute to development of SZ
  • Socially Sensitive  as Sz not completely understood and it may be upsetting to some people 
  • IC + Psych Harm: - sufferers can't necesarily be deemed to be in their right mind and able to give valid informed consent - especially due to potential unpredictability of episodes. Also Psychodynamic approach may be upsetting to e.g. parents as it somehat accuses them of having a hand in their childs disease
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