Processes and Skills

OCR GCSE FOOD TECHNOLOGY. Notes on processes and skills. 

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Heat Transference

Cooking Method: 

  • Type of food
  • Facilities available 
  • How much time
  • Needs of individual
  • Choice of consumer e.g. cooking healthily 
  • Skills of the cook

There are three basic methods:

  • Conduction - Heat transfered by contact with heat 
  • Convection - Heat moves through convection currents 
  • Radiation - Direct rays pass from heat source to the food 

Wet Methods - Boiling, Simmering, Poaching, Steaming, Casseroling

Dry Methods - Baking, Roasting, Grilling, Frying


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Effects of Heat on Different Foods

Protein Foods - Coagulation occurs, If over heated they become touch and chewy.

Starchy Foods - Dry Heat on Flour: Crust becomes brown (dextrinisation) Moist Heat on Flour: Mixture will thicken (gelatinisation).

Sugars - Browning occurs: Caramelisation e.g. Creme Brulee, Changes to syrup e.g. Creme Caramel, Milliard reaction which takes place in biscuits as they also contain carbohydrates and proteins. 

Fruit and Vegetables - Vitamins can be destroyed. Colour and texture can also be destroyed. Some vegetables e.g. potatoes need to be cooked in order for us the eat them as they contain high starch levels which need to be softened in order for our bodies to be able to digest them.

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