nutrition

food choice

  • peer pressure 
  • food scares - reports in the media that may cause people to stop eating certain foods
  • lifestyles - demand for food that is easy to prepare
  • health - making changes to improve our health 
  • religious/moral beliefs - religions often have food laws - morally wrong to kill animals 
  • storage and cooking facilities - facilities may be limited 
  • personal choice - we are influenced by organoleptic qualities 
  • regional variations 
  • food trends - we may be persuaded to buy certain products
  • cultural - eating patterns vary according to beliefs, values where we live and foods available
  • your skills 
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food choices

Religious issues:

Hinduism - cow is sacred - usually vegetarians - many fasting days 

Sikhism - similar to hindus - more meat is eaten

Islam - pig is considered unclean - other animals must be slaughtered in a particular way - Halal

Jews - meat must be specially slaughtered - Kosher - no pork - meat and dairy cannot be eaten together

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vitamins

Micronutrients > Vitamins 

  • made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen 

Functions: 

  • maintain health
  • prevent deficiency diseases - e.g. beri beri and rickets
  • regulate the repair of body cells
  • combat the ageing process
  • help to process carbohydrates and release energy
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carbohydrates

Sources of Fibre: Insoluble Fibre: 

  • absorbs water - increases bulk - soft and bulky faeces 
  • E.g. wholemeal flour, wholegrain breakfast cereals, pasta, brown rice and some fruits and veg

Soluble Fibre:

  • slows digestion and absorption of carbohydrates - helps control blood sugar levels - stops hunger
  • reduce blood cholesterol levels - reduce risk of heart disease
  • E.g. oats, peas, beans, lentils, most fruits and veg 
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minerals

Micronutrients > Minerals Calcium, Iron, Sodium, Phosphorus, Fluoride

Functions: strong bones and teethcontrolling body processes - e.g. nerve impulsesessential part of body fluids and cellsform part of enzymes and other proteins - necessary for energy release 

Calcium:strong bones and teeth 

  • E.g. dairy products, sardines, white bread, nuts 
  • young children need a lot 
  • Deficiency - rickets and osteoporosis (weak bones)
  • works with Vitamin D 
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minerals 2

Iron: 

  • form red blood cells - carry oxygen around body - haemoglobin
  • E.g. red meat, wholemeal bread, dried fruit, plain chocolate 
  • stored in liver 
  • Deficiency - anaemia - women and children most common 

Sodium:

  • no more than 6g a day - maintains correct concentration of body fluids 
  • E.g. table salt, cooked meats, bacon, salty snacks 
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nutrients

Macronutrients - Needed in large quantities - form the bulk of our diet

E.g. Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates 

Micronutrients - Needed in very small quantities - vital to health 

E.g. Vitamins, Minerals 

Government guidelines - improve diet and lifestyle

Reduce cancer, coronary heart disease, strokes, diabetes and obesity

Deficiencies or Excesses - result in diet-related medical conditions  

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