Function of Ingredients

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Functions of Ingredients - Salt

Salt:

  • develops flavour
  • strengthens gluten in flour 
  • controls action of yeast
  • preserves 
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Functions of Ingredients - Others

Baking powder:

  • to aerate

Yeast:

  • to aerate

Herbs and Spices:

  • improve and add flavour
  • garnish

Gelatine:

  • setting 

Chocolate, icings:

  • coat or decorate 
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Functions of Ingredients - Fruits

Fruits and Vegetables:

  • add colour 
  • add flavour
  • add texture
  • thicken
  • add nutritional value
  • to garnish
  • to add a topping 
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Functions of Ingredients - Flour

Flour:

Functions:

  • forms main structure of a product - due to gluten content 
  • bulking 
  • raising agent - self-raising flour - used to thicken (gelatinisation) 

Examples: 

  • Bread - strong plain flour - high gluten content 
  • Cakes - soft plain flour - low gluten content 
  • Crumble - topping 
  • Pastry - casing
  • Sauces 
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Functions of Ingredients - Liquid

Liquid:

  • raising agent - when converted to steam
  • binds ingredients together
  • glazing (milk)
  • enrich (milk)
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Functions of Ingredients - Fat

Fat:

Function: 

  • adds colour & flavour - butter/margarine used
  • holds air bubbles during mixing - create texture and volume
  • extend shelf life 
  • shorten a flour mixture - crisp or crumbly texture 
  • shortening 
  • frying/ sauteing 
  • form emulsions 
  • binds ingredients - oils

Examples:

  • cakes, biscuits, pastry, stir-fry, salad dressing 
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Functions of Ingredients - Egg

Egg:

Functions:

  • adds colour 
  • adds flavour
  • holds air when whisked
  • forms an emulsion when mixed with fat 
  • binds ingredients ogether
  • coagulating/setting 
  • glazing
  • coating/enrobing
  • enriching - thickening 
  • give a smooth, glossy finish to aid piping 
  • adding nutritional value 
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Functions of Ingredients - Sugar

Sugar:

  • sweetens
  • develops flavour
  • increases bulk of the mixture
  • holds air
  • aids fermentation
  • preserves
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Raising Agents

  • give lightness to mixture
  • gases expand when heated
  • air - whisking, rubbing, sieving, folding & rolling, creaming, beating 
  • carbon dioxide - bicarbonate of soda, bicarbonate of soda + acid, baking powder (basically bos+acid) 
  • self-raising flour - flour + raising agent 
  • yeast - break down sugars by fermentation - CO2 + alcohol 
  • water vapour (steam) - cooking from liquids 
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Additives

Functions:

  • keep properties for longer 
  • flavour
  • colour
  • texture 
  • appearance
  • stability 
  • improve nutritional profile 

E - acceptable in EU 

Can be:

  • natural
  • nature identical (synthetic) 
  • artificial 

Must appear on the label in descending order of quantity 

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Additives

Functions:

  • keep properties for longer 
  • flavour
  • colour
  • texture 
  • appearance
  • stability 
  • improve nutritional profile 

E - acceptable in EU 

Can be:

  • natural
  • nature identical (synthetic) 
  • artificial 

Must appear on the label in descending order of quantity 

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Additives 2

Advantages:

  • helps meet consumer needs 
  • helps improve a specific characteristic of food
  • helps produce expected qualities i.e. colour, flavour
  • helps produce product range - use different additives in basic foods 
  • helps maintain product consistency in large-scale production
  • helps restore original characteristics after processing
  • helps prevent food spoilage 
  • helps disguise inferior ingredients - reduce costs 

Disadvantages:

  • allergies - difficult to figure out which additive causes particular allergy - will not buy product 
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Types of Additives

Colours:

  • make more attractive 
  • not allowed in baby foods

Preservatives:

  • extend shelf life 
  • prevent growth of microorganisms 

Sweeteners: 

  • intense - aspartame, saccharin 
    • 330 x sweeter than sugar 
    • low in energy 
    • used in diet products 
    • bitter after-taste 
    • not same characteristics for cooking 
  • bulk - hydrogenated glucose syrup, sorbital, sucralose 
    • similar to sugar 
    • used for diabetics and sugar-free confectionery 
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Types of Additives 2

Emulsifiers, Stabilisers, Gelling agents, & Thickeners: 

  • improve consistency during processing and storage 
  • emulsifiers and stabilisers - mix ingredients that would normally separate 
  • thickeners - increase viscosity 
  • gelling agents - get the correct consistency 

Flavourings and flavour enhancers:

  • must meet Food Safety Act 1990 
  • used in savoury foods 
  • add flavour
  • replace flavours lost in processing 
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Types of Additives 3

Antioxidants:

  • most foods containing fats and oils contain them 
  • some natural - vitamin C and E 
  • help prevent fat-soluble vitamins, oils and fats combining with oxygen - rancid fats 
  • help prevent foods going brown 

Anti-caking agents:

  • atop crystals and powders sticking together

Anti-foaming agents:

  • used in jam making 
  • stop foam forming when fruit and sugar are boiled

Commercial glazing agents (E901, E903, E904):

  • shiny appearance - protect food drying out
  • from beeswax leaves, or insects 
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Fortification of Foods

Fortified by law - white and brown flour - with calcium 

Fortified voluntarily - promote healthy lifestyles 

  • increase nutrient content
  • where there is a nutrient deficiency 
  • gives advantage in helping sell more - manufacturers 
  • may help with other aspects - vitC is antioxidant 
  • replace nutrients lost in processing 
  • produce product similar to another product 

e.g.

  • Fruit juices - Vitamin C 
  • TVP used in Savoury products - Iron and Vitamin V 
  • Low fat spreads - Vitamin A and D 
  • Breakfast cereals 
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Food Components

Component - an individual part that makes up a product 

Manufacturers buy pre-manufactured components 

- pizza bases, grated cheese, chopped ham and vegetables 

Advantages:

  • saves prep time 
  • saves staff skill, cost and equipment 
  • same result every time 
  • guaranteed quality - made by experts 
  • relatively long shelf life 
  • safer - high-risk processes already done 

Disadvantages:

  • rely on manufacturers - their problems become yours 
  • taste and quality - not as good as own 
  • other food companies use same components 
  • expensive
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