• Agility - ability to move and change direction quickly while maintaining control
  • Balance - maintaining the centre of mass over the base of support (static & dynamic)
  • Cardiovascular endurance (aerobic power) - ability of the heart & lungs to supply oxygen to the working muscles
  • Co-ordination - ability to use 2 or more parts of the body together, smoothly & efficiently
  • Flexibilty - the range of movements possible at a joint
  • Muscular endurance - ability of the muscles/muscle group to undergo repeated contractions, avoiding fatige (dynamic strength)
  • Power (explosive strength/anaerobic power) - product of strength & speed
  • Reaction time - time taken to start responding to a stimulus
  • Speed - maximum rate an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time, putting the body parts into action as quickly as possible 
  • Strength - ability to overcome resistance:
  • maximal - maxium force that a muscle can exert a single voluntary contraction
  • explosive - muscular strength used in one short sharp movement 
  • static - ability to hold a body part in a static position, muscle length stays the same
  • dynamic - muscular endurance
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Reasons for fitness testing:

  • Identifiying strengths and/or weaknesses to inform training requirements
  • Establishing a starting level of fitness and monitoring improvement
  • Motivation - enables setting of realistic goals
  • Providing variety - helps put together a varied training programme

Limitations of fitness testing:

  • Often too general / not sport-specific e.g. 'sit and reach test' measures hamstring & lower back flexibility when swimmer's upper body flexibility is also important
  • May not replicate movements of the actual activity e.g. 'stork balance test' involves a pose that isn't featured in many sports that require flexibility
  • Don't replicate competitive conditions e.g. noisy crowds or anxiety might effect performance
  • Inaccurate as many don't use direct measuring e.g. in the 'vertical jump test' ir can be difficult to tell if a perfromer is putting in maximum effort at all times
  • Must be carried out woth the correct procedures to increase validity
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  • Agility - illinois agility test
  • Balance - stork balance test
  • Cardiovascular endurance - multi-stage fitness test (bleep test)
  • Co-ordination - wall toss test
  • Flexibility - sit and reach test
  • Muscular endurance - sit up bleep test
  • Power/explosive strength - virtical jump test
  • Reaction time - ruler drop test
  • Maximal strenth - one rep max test
  • Speed - 30m sprint
  • Strenth - handgrip dynamometer test

Qualitative data - subjective (existing in the mind), involves opinions relating to the quality of performance e.g judges scoring a routine in gymnastics 

Quantitative data - objective (not influenced by feelings but based on facts), can be quantified as a number e.g. time in seconds or goals achieved 

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  • Specificity - making training specific to the sport/movements/musces/energt e.g.a gymnast incorporating flexibility into their training programme
  • Progressive Overload - gradual increase of overload (stress placed on the body during exercise) so that fitness gains occur but without potential for injury e.g. weights gradually increased 
  • Reversibility - losing fitness levels when excercise is storpped or reduced
  • Tedium - boredom that can occur from training the same way every time,variety is needed

F.I.T.T: (used to increase the amount of work the body does to achieve overload)

  • Frequency - how often training takes place
  • Intensity - how hard you train
  • Time - duration of each session
  • Type - method of training
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  • Circuit training - Consists of a number of different exercises called stations completed one after another, with a brief period of rest between. It is then repeated after a longer rest.
  • Continuous training - Consists of taking part in sustained exercise at a constant rate without rest e.g. running, swimming or cycling
  • Interval/High intensity interval training - Interval involves periods work and periods of rest. High-intensity interval involves periods of high-intensity exercise as well as periods of low-intensity exercise (active recovery)
  • Fartlek training - form of interval training, involves periods of fast and slow work
  • Static stretching - a stretch is for up to 30s (isometric contraction) 
  • Weight training - free weights  (e.g. dumb-bells, core muscles have to work harder to keep them stable), resistance machines (promote good technique by providing stability)
  • Plyometric training - involves high impact exercise to increase power, using an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contraction 
  • High altitude training - aerobic training at high altitude (e.g. on a mountain) 2000m above sea level, blood has to make more red blood cells to carry oxygen as there is a lack of oxygen
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Training thresholds:

  • maximum heart rate (MHR) = 220 - age
  • aerobic training zone = 60-80% of MHR
  • anaerobic training zone = 80-90% of MHR

Preventing injury:

  • Match type of training & intensity to performers needs / make goals achievable 
  • Do not over train
  • Wear appropriate clothing & footwear
  • Stretch, don't overstretch or bounce stretches
  • Use taping & bracing where appropriate - it can prevents injury to joints and treat injuries
  • Always use the correct technique
  • Keep hydrated
  • Make time for rest & recovery
  • Always warm up & cool down properly 
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  • general aerobic fitness 
  • training components of fitness essential for chosen sport 
  • practicing skills & techniques that will prepare them for success in competitive season

Competitive/peak/playing season

  • maintaining fitness levels throughout 
  • avoid overtraining
  • work on optimising skills 
  • in team sports - practice improving team performance
  • take into account strengths & weaknesses from each match

Post-season/closed season/transition

  • rest and recovery
  • light aerobic exercise to maintain general fitness levels
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Warming up:

  • gradual pulse raising activity e.g. jog
  • stretching
  • raises body temperature
  • increases range of movement possible
  • mental preparation
  • increases oxygen to working muscles 
  • reduces possiblility of injury

Cooling down:

  • gradually reducing intensity 
  • stretching 
  • removes lactic acid, carbon dioxide and waste products from blood
  • prevents DOMS 
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