Booklet 1-Culture and Socialisation

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Component 1- Core

Agencies of socialisation

•Are the social institutions that help transmit norms and values to us as individuals

•There are 6 agencies of socialisation

1 PRIMARY agent of socialisation;The FAMILY

5 SECONDARY agents; EDUCATION, PEER GROUPS, MASS MEDIA, RELIGION, WORKPLACE

E.G. RELIGION – can teach us about morality and treating other people as we would want to be treated ourselves.  Society needs individuals to have a sense of morality.

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R.I.S.E- We are socialised in 4 main ways (R.I.S.E)

1.Role Models(parents, peers, celebrities, teachers children may look up to and wish to imitate)

2.Imitation(children learn social skills by copying their parents, peers, teachers, aiming to be like them)

3.Sanctions(rewards and punishments are used informal means of social control)

4.Expectations(parents, teachers, peers may have expectations of their child’s or pupil’s or friend’s behaviour which will be linked to their culture or subculture which they will encourage using sanctions to ensure they are followed)

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Role models-

Role models can include your parents, peers, teachers and celebrities.

They can act as aspirational or ideal people to their children which look up to them and wish to imitate.
 

 Imitation-

Children learn social skills by copying their parents, peers, teachers and aiming to be like them which evolve in the process of identification

Sanctions- Rewards and punishments are used

They are informal means of social control

 

 

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Expectations-

Your parents, teachers and peers may have expectations of their child’s, pupil’s, or friend’s behaviour which will link to their culture or subculture.

These expectations will be encouraged using sanctions to ensure they are followed

Exam tips

• Do not use role models and imitation in the same paragraph.

•Do not use expectations and sanctions in the same paragraph.

•You must cover all four RISE within your answer.

•Always pick Family and Education as two key agents.

•Your other agent should come from the item.

 

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Society- 

•We are socialised into the norms and values of society which:

1.Influence our behaviour

2.Make up the roles we play

3.Ensure social control

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Primary Socialisation – The Family

It is estimated we learn half of everything we know in the first 5 years of our life therefore the family is highly significant in socialisation 

Patterns of child rearing vary across society

However children are not just sponges they experience a lot of secondary socialising agencies too

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How does the family socialise us?  Use examples of RISE.           P1. Role Models- Parents act as role models to their children, expressing behaviour which they see as appropriate and demonstrating to their children how they should look-up to them e.g. Boys copying fathers.

 P2. Imitation- Children copy the behaviour of their parents, aiming to be like them and create their own identity e.g. Copying of gender roles and children often identify with the gender appropriate parent.

 P3. Sanctions- Parents use forms of reward and punishment to control and discipline their children – These are informal measures of social control e.g. Grounded , no spends OR buy your gift, get money to praise you

 P4. Expectations- Parents may have expectations of their child’s behaviour which will be linked to their culture. Often sanctions are used to reinforce such expectations e.g. Get educated.

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Primary Socialisation The Family 

Gender Role Socialisation – this identity starts in the family e.g. the way they dress, what toys they use, how they are treated

Manipulation (fussing, grooming, dressing etc.) – Imitation - e.g. girls fussing about their hair and makeup.

Canalisation (e.g. sex-differentiated toys) – Expectations –e.g. Barbie's and dolls for girls & action man, cars and footballs for boys.

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Secondary Socialisation – Education

We learn to work in groups, tolerate and respect each other’s views, value of working hard and getting on, and where societies norms and values are reinforced creating what functionalists refer to as a ’consensus’.

•’Hidden curriculum’ – the things we learn in school that are not part of the academic curriculum. Some sociologists see this as a positive: learning to ‘fit in’ and accept authority figures, whereas conflict sociologists see it as learning your place of subordination and accepting failure.

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How does Education socialise us? INCLUDE RISE

P1:Role Models - Children will look up to their teachers as role models, often inspiring to be like them and achieve their own individual success. E.g. Work hard, punctual.

P2:Imitation- Children copy the behaviour of other children in allowing them to  ‘fit in’ as often braking the norms of schools is seen as ‘uncool’. E.g. Mess about, talk in class.

P3: Sanctions-Positive and negative sanctions are implemented by teaching staff in teaching children the rights and wrongs of society. E.g.Detentions, suspensions, prizes, certificates.

P4:Expectations-Teaching staff will have expectations of children in relation to how they should behave and act. Sometimes, these expectations will differ according to gender, race & social class. E.g. Expect boys to be lazy.

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Secondary Socialisation – Peer group 

•Typically made up of people of a similar status with whom you mix and identify with such as friends

•Such a group tends to shape norms and values (especially in adolescents) as people feel they are expected to conform to the expectations of the group

•Thus, youth rebellion is often seen as reflecting peer pressure to adopt oppositional values (could form a subculture)

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Secondary Socialisation – Peer groups

•How does Peer Groups socialise us? •RISE

P1: Role Models = People will often look up to their peers and friends, admiring them and their behaviour and deciding to be similar to them e.g. Appearance  

P2: Imitation =People may copy and conform to the behaviour of their friends , seeking to be like them. However, this can lead to conflict with parents/schools if deviant e.g.Truant in school  

P3: Sanctions = Friends reinforce positive and negative sanctions on each other to achieve individual status’ and reinforce friendship groups e.g. Friendship breakdowns

P4: Expectations = Friends may have exert strong pressures on others to conform to their norms and values. Friends often conform to avoid embarrassment e.g. Boys remaining masculine  

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Secondary Socialisation – Mass media

Powerful institution that manipulates its audience

Many use the mass media to make sense of the world around them

The media offers a window to the world and provides much of the information required to make sense of events that have a bearing on everyday lives.

•E.g. Media and crime – reporting about punishments to stop people from committing crime – sanctions and expectations.

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Secondary Socialisation Mass Media

•How does Mass Media socialise us? •RISE

P1: Role Models = Celebrities appear as role models to the younger generation, with many wanting to be just like them. They demonstrate ‘ideal’ behaviour yet at times show ‘deviance’ also e.g. David Beckham & father figure

P2: Imitation = Through films, pictures and online the media presents use with acceptable and unacceptable behaviour which we may copy e.g. Women’s role to complete housework.

P3: Sanctions = Through increases use of media, people able to access personal information and reinforce sanctions e.g. Facebook, number of  likes or comments made.

P4: Expectations = The images presented in the media, highlight expectations around acceptable behaviour. These are often linked to different  gender roles e.g. Men to complete DIY roles .
 

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Secondary Socialisation – Religion 

•Religion socialises society’s members into certain values with a sacred quality

•These values become moral codes into which everyone is socialised at a young age e.g. the Ten Commandments

•Such codes regulate our social behaviour and influence both formal & informal social control

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Secondary Socialisation – Religion 

How does Religion socialise us? RISE

P1: Role Models = Priest, vicars and nuns discuss with us role models from religious books, encouraging others to be alike and act in such ways e.g. encouragement to be helpful.

P2: Imitation = Priest, vicars and nuns communicate acceptable behaviour to us which we are encouraged to copy e.g. Good Samaritan - Forgiveness.

P3: Sanctions = Religion in some countries has the power to impose formal and informal sanctions on individuals e.g. Catholic encouraged to attend confessions.

P4: Expectations = Religion sets out given guidelines and rules around acceptable behaviour for people to follow e.g. Follow the bible  

 

 

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Chapter 2- Agents of Socialisation

Secondary Socialisation – Workplace 

Teaches us work discipline and the informal rules that underpin work, i.e. the tricks of the trade

In more formal work-based organisations we may be influenced to behave in particular ways, e.g. the interests of the group are the priority

Those in professional occupations are given a clear understanding of how they should behave by rules set out by the workplace, e.g. teachers and doctors

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Secondary Socialisation – The workplace

How does the Workplace socialise us? RISE

P1:Role Models = Managers and colleagues will demonstrate successful behaviour which will cause others to wish to aspire to, acting as role models e.g. Supportive and organised.

P2:Imitation = Colleagues will imitate the behaviour of other colleagues, often those seen as the most successful in support of achieving own individual success e.g. Additional roles. 

  P3:Sanctions = The workforce will implement positive and negative sanctions, both with can be formal and informal e.g. Vouchers and rewards.  

P4:Expectations = Employers will outline a set of guidelines and regulations in relation to expected behaviour and conduct, as you act apart of that company e.g. Company handbook. 

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