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  • Socialisation
    • Perspectives on socialisation
      • Socialisation is the process by which individuals become self-aware and learn the culture of their society.
    • Functionalism
      • Parsons saw socialisation as vital to the process by which a value consensus is produced in society.
        • Parsons argued the family is the most important agency of primary socialisation as taking place primarily through identification with adults.
        • Parsons saw schooling as an important agency of secondary socialisation, as it acts as the bridge between the home and society at large.
    • Marxism
      • Tends to agree that socialisation can be an effective way of producing conformity, but they disagree that this benefits society as a whole.
      • Ideological conditioning
        • Cooper was the family as a device that conditions children to accept their own exploitation.
          • The family lays down behaviour patterns in which people submit to those in authority. Children learn to obey employers in later life.
            • Bowles and Gintis (1976) - Hidden Curriculum - socialised children to be subservient and obedient, to be motivated by external rewards and to see inequality in society as legitimate.
    • Neo-marxism
      • Socialisation is not as effective as some assume.
      • Involves the transmission of cultural capital - cultural resources that can be used to acquire other sorts of capital, like money.
    • Symbolic interactionism
      • Socialisation agents, like parents and teachers
        • They have responsibilities for preparing children for membership of society.
    • Feminism
      • Ann Oakley (1974) - Distinct gender roles for men and women that derive from culture rather than from biology
        • Gender roles vary from society to society but in all societies they tend to maintain male dominance and female subservience.
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