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What the specification says
Topic area Know and Revised
understand
The
dist
inct
ion
bet
w een
pri
mar
y and
secondar
y dat
a
The
dist
inct
ion
bet
w een
quant
it
ati
ve
and
qual
it
ati
ve
dat
a
St
ages i
n t
he r
e sear
ch
process
(incl
udi
ng r
esearch
questi
ons,
oper
ati
onali
sati
on,
acce ss,
sampli
ng,
ethi
cs,
pi
lot
sur
veys i
nter
pret
ati
on of
dat
a)
Key…read more

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Types of data ­ primary and secondary
Primary data i
s i
nfor
ma t
ion
col
lect
ed
by soci
ologi
sts
themsel
ves
for
t
h ei
r
own
purpose.
These
purposes ma y
be t
o obt
ain
a f
ir
sthand
`pi
ctur
e'
of
a group
or
soci
ety,
or
t
o t
est
a
hypot
hesis
(an
untest
ed theory)
.…read more

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Secondary data
is
inf
ormat
ion t
hat
has
been col
lect
ed
or
creat
ed
by
someone
else
for
t
hei
r
own
pur
poses,
bu t
whi
ch the
soci
ologi
st
can
then
use.
Two methods to gather secondary data:
Statistics
Written data
Pri
ma r
y dat
a Secondar
y dat
a
Advant
ages The dat
a i
s cont
empor
ary
and
up I
t'
s a
qui
ck and
cheap
w ay
of
t
o date.…read more

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Numerical, statistical, Experiments (e.g.…read more

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Effects on research participants Vulnerable groups
If the research is done via an experiment then more guidelines Research will have to be conducted so that the participants'
will have to be followed than if a questionnaire was vulnerability is not exploited or so they become stressed etc.
completed. This is because the effects different research aims (i.e. Rape victims)
and the method used will have to change to make sure
participants are not harmed in any way.…read more

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Also,
peopl
e do
not
spen d
mu ch
ti
me
thi
nking
about
answers
and
the
cl
osedended nat
ure
of
questi
ons may r
estr
ict
al
l
possibl
e answers/
ma ybe
ambi
guou s
in
meani
ng .…read more

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After choosing a topic, the target population has to be identified and a sample selected. If it is large and fairly
reflects the people being studied then generalisations can be safely made. Throughout the whole process
sociologists need to be aware of ethics.
Interpretivism
Interpretivists argue that the study of society as a science is not possible as the things in it (people!) are not
identical and cannot be treated as the same.…read more

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