Parts 4,5 Geography AS Edexcel World at Risk - Globalisation, Unit 1

Parts 4,5 Geography AS Edexcel World at Risk - Globalisation, Unit 1

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4. Population change in the UK

Genealogy - The study of family history

Greying Population - population structure in which the proportion of people aged 65+ is high and increasing

Age-Selective migration - a movement of a particular age group

Babyboom - a brief increase in birth rate, UK experienced this post WW2

Secularisation -declining significance of religion=^ tolerence of abortion contraception

Analysing population change in the UK

  • Total population rise from 38M 1991 ---> 61M 2007
  • Individual household sizes have fallen
  • Increased life expectancy = ^ pop +65 (1931: 7%, now 16%)
  • General 'South East drift' away from manufacturing & mining
  • Age selective migration - retired >seaside settlements, young ads > cities
  • Decline traditional manufacturing,primary employment to 'white collar'work
  • Minority groups now = 8% population
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Birth rates & Life Expectancy & Consumerism $$$$$$

Falling Births- women's status, pay & rights, contraception, abortion, education, ^ costs of living

Longer life expectancy- healthcare, treatment, & prevention, hygiene, sanitation, safety, diet, lifestyle, outsourced labour & automated manufacture

Consumption & consumerism

Consumption - the purchase & use of commodities & services, inc food, goods & leisure

Consumerism - the growth of a way of life based around consumption. 2006 - UK consumer spending 1 trillion poundz

Rising levels of consumption explain increasing no. shopping centres & TNC's, people do not want to give up leisure, e.g. holidays, shopping = declining fertility

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UK- Greying Polulation

Proportion of UK's population over 65 is growing leading to a greying population =growing burden of dependency - can be shown using dependency ratio:

dependency rate= pop under 16 + pop over 65     x 100

                                           pop 15-64

Currently 60% Britons work & pay taxes > state pensions of the retired (21%)

By 2030, 56% Britons will be working to support the 27% who are retired

Benefits of greying population

the 'grey pound', charitable work, spending money on goods & services, earning money & paying tax, bring wisdom to world policies

The concept of greying population set to 'go global' with modern healthcare spread

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5. Demographic Transition

There are four successive phases countries enter as living conditions improve.

PHASE 1: Preindustrial - high birth & death rates - disease, poor living - small pop size. E.g. no countries are still in this state!!

PHASE 2: Boom begins - birthrate remains high - better sanitation, health care, food supply, death rate declines. E.g. Nigeria, Angola

PHASE 3: Still Rising - birthrate declines- women educated, family planning etc, death rate continues to decline, pop still rising. E.g. Brazil, India

PHASE 4: Leveling Off -births & deaths come into balance- population stabalizes. E.g. Japan, Russia

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5. International Migration into Europe

By 2005 - 190million people worldwide were living outside their birth country

> Schengen Agreements 1995 - abolished border controls between EU countries, allowing free movement of people - the EU is now a highly desirable destination - has reputation as being hard to get into.

> Between 4-8 million illegal immigrants are thought to be living in the EU, but main issues with assylum seekers are in countries with political issues, e.g. Middle East

> Shared language, e.g. English = relocating easier

The EU15 are the original countries in the EU, e.g. Austria, Spain, UK

The A10 are those that joined in 2004, e.g. Estonia, Poland, Cyprus (accession 1)

The A2 are the recent 2007 additions - Bulgaria & Romania (accession 2)

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5. On The Move - Migration - Key Terms

Displaced Person - people forced to move, by war, famine, politics or nat disaster

Illegal Migrants - avoid border controls, enter a new country illegally

Voluntary - move for quality of life, e.g. economic migrants

Net Migration - the balance between immigration & emigration

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5. Poland to UK

In 2007, 1.3 million poles traveled to Britain for seasonal work. As the government predicted, many stayed.

Pull factors to source country (Poland)

  • Exchange rate: 1 pound = 7 zloty
  • Plenty of better paid jobs available - 2009= 600,000 job vacancies in labour
  • Ease of migration
  • 5 x better education
  • Free health care

Push factors in host country (UK)

  • Discrimination & distrust from locals
  • Strain on services  - ep education and health care
  • Overcrowding
  • Illegal trafficking, not all are skilled
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5. Poland to UK

Push factors in source country (Poland)

  • High unemployment currently 25% 
  • Low availability of housing - for every 1000 people,300 house
  • Low average income - EU average is 3 X greater than Poland
  • Family friends already in UK - Peterborough = 1/10 of population
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Poland --> UK Consequences

Consequences for source (Poland)

  • population decrease of 0.3% between 2003 & 2007
  • shortage of labourers, esp male - limiting growth of polish economy
  • lack of skilled workers 'brain drain'
  • pressure on family life - fathers living in UK
  • easier for women to get jobs
  • unemployment rates decreasing
  • counter flows -  skills - language etc, remittance
  • Gdansk - now employing chinese ukrain & korrean workers

Consequences for host (UK)

  • economic losses due2remittances(2006 3.45 billion euros sent to Poland)
  • may lead UK to change migration policy - standards decreasing
  • > unlimited migration disallowed for the A2 countries
  • add to UK economy
  • increase birthrates...but is this good?
  • multicultural society 
  • replacement labour force = less outsourcing neccessary
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Consequence of Migration


  • young skilled migrants are likely to boost economic growth, dependent families initially costly, UK treasury suggests migrants not damaging economy - contribute towards 10% taxes, only take back 9%

Social, cultural & environmental 

  • root cause of UK's gradual pop growth, multicultural societies, social issues is migrants fail to integrate or experience predjudice, source country pop may begin to undervalue the source country & migrate themselves

Uk's policy on population

  • tough on assylum seekers - only accept genuine applicants, point based system favouring those with skills/education, worker registration scheme = eastern europeans can fill low skill & wage employment gaps
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Britons are retiring to Spain

Why are retired Brits moving?>>living longer, free healthcare, relaxed lifestyle & climate, high house prices UK, easy to communicate with people at home, e.g. Skype, Email, purpose built enclaves - La Marina, Alicante  - 4,000 brits live here HOWEVER- obstacles- language, visas, family

Source Country Effects (UK)

  • reduce top heavy dependency (greying pop)
  • less pressure on health services
  • balances immigration
  • if under 65 (working age) slows economic growth
  • less consumers in UK economy

Host Country Effects (Spain)

  • brings in consumers > entrepeneurship possibilites
  • increases employment
  • spain has to spend 1 billion euros extra on healthcare a year
  • remittances, & water supply decrease
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5. Africa to EU migration

"Some estimates suggest there are 4-8 million illegal migrants in the EU"

> Strong push factors - conflict, civil unrest, famine, & poverty, e.g. Libya

> Costs -llegal immigrants - very dangerous paths, deaths due to hyperthermia, bandits, & extortion


  • Life Exp. 80 years
  • HIV 0.3 %
  • Population growth 0.6%


  • Life Exp. 47
  • HIV 5.8 %
  • Population growth 2.3%
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