- Created by: chelseagiles00
- Created on: 12-04-17 16:40
Variation in Quality of Life and Access to Housing
Related Case Study: Nottingham housing patterns.
Central Business District (CBD)
- High land prices.
- High rise buildings.
- Shops, offices, government buildings, entertainment.
- Centre of the transport networks.
- Lack of housing due to high costs of the land.
- 19th century terraced housing.
- Within 1-2km of the CBD zone.
- Owner occupies or privately rented.
- Lack of transport meant houses built next to factories for walking distance work.
- Narrow streets.
- Lack of parking spaces.
- 1950s and 1960s council built tower blocks.
- Brownfield sites to build new houses.
- Student population was built here.
- Gardens, wider roads, garages, drives, schools and local shops.
- 1930s semi-detached housing.
- 4-5km from the CBD.
- 1950s large detached housing.
- Private house buildings.
- Some characteristics of the city and some of the country side.
- Housing and shops V Open space and fields.
Different Groups of People
- Radford - Ethnic minorities, students and first time buyers.
- Lenton - Low income families.
- Wollaton - Higher income families and professional people.
Access to Services and Changing Service Provision
Related Case Study: Nottingham shopping.
Shops - CBD
- Chain stores, department stores, markets, specialist shops and covered shopping centres.
- Most accessible part of the city so more people can reach these shops.
- Land prices high but enough customers to fulfil their 'threshhold population'.
- Mainly sell 'High Order Goods'.
- High land prices means shops go upwards not sideways.
Shops - Inner City
- Second hand shops, corner shops, take-aways and large units.
- Poorer population and so people will have a demand for second hand goods.
- There will be a 'ribbon development' where the shops are in a line.
Shops - Suburbs
- Corner shops.
- Accessible by foot.
- Shops used to be family owned but have been taken over by chains.
Shops - Urban-Rural Fringe
- One storey large stores.
- Accessible for motorway system for deliveries.
- Lower land price so shops can occupy a larger land area.
- Free car parking.
Different Groups of People
- Car owners / non-car owners - affects how easy it is to reach out of town sites.
- Poor / wealthier people - affects whether they need to buy second hand goods or not.
- Disabled / able bodied - affects access to the shop specially old shops with narrow doorways.
- People with specialist needs - Muslims who need to buy Halal meats.
- People with / without access to the internet - people are forced to pay high street prices.
Changes in Shopping Patterns
Out of town shopping:
- Most shops used to be located in the CBD ..
- .. Cheaper land means that companies can have bigger shops than they could afford in the CBD.
- Many more people buy goods online ..
- .. More choice online and people can comparison shops from the comfort of their own home. They can also shop at a time that suits them.
- Large supermarkets have replaced a lot of local traditional shops ..
- .. People with busy lives want to do their shopping in one place, once a week.
Access to Services and Changing Service Provision
Related Case Study: Barcelona leisure
- Barcelona is located in North-East Spain. It is in the Region of Catalonia and is the second larges city in Spain, with a population of 1.6 million.
Leisure Facility - Beach
- In the East of the city, boarding on the Mediterranean Sea.
- Many of the beaches and the surroundings were redeveloped when Barcelona hosted the 1992 Olympics.
- Things to do = Windsurfing, swim, kite surfing and beach huts.
- Cost = Free.
- Access = Metro station 10 minutes away by foot. Cycle path alongside.
- Groups of people = All age groups. Disabled (wooden paths onto the beach for wheelchairs).
Leisure Facility - Camp Nou
- It is the largest stadium in Europe, home to Barcelona FC.
- Things to do = Attend matches there plus there is the Nou Camp experience.
- Cost = 23€ for adults and 17€ for 6-13 year olds. Free for young children. Match tickets are over 50€ minimum price.
- Access = Metro links and bus routes near the stadium.
- Groups of people = Football fans, families and older people. Disabled visitors in the museum but not all the stadium is accessible due to steps.
Leisure Facility - La Sagrada Familia
- The most famous landmark in Barcelona.
- The unfinished gothic cathedral was designed by Antoni Gaudi and started in 1882.
- Things to do = View the famous architecture, go up one of the towers and visit the museum.
- Cost = 15€ for all except for children under 10 and disabled people. 20€ to visit the tower.
- Access = Metro and bus routes.
- Groups of people = Disabled people can't access the towers. Expensive for families. Christians visit free.
Leisure Facility - Las Ramblas
- Famous shopping street.
- Street entertainers like mime artists.
- Things to do = Shop, go to the theatre, watch street entertainers and eat.
- Cost = Free to stroll but shops cover a range of prices. Free to watch the street entertainers.
- Access = The street is pedestrianised but there is nearby access to the metro and bus routes.
- Groups of people = Anyone can go here as it is a wide, flat street. Some would not be able to afford the price of some shops and restaurants.
Related Case Study: Brazil rural-urban migration
- Mainly happening in LEDCs.
- People move from the countryside to cities for a better life.
- Most people who migrate are poor and so this leads to an increase in favelas.
- Push = Crops fail, lack of health care, lack of drinking water, lack of education opportunities, war and/or disease.
- Pull = Job opportunities, the bright lights, access to health care and education and/or to be with relatives who have laready moved there.
Affects of Migration
- Migrants may send money back to their home vilages.
- Rural depopulation reduces the pressure on the land.
- Gender imbalance due to men leaving first.
- Loss of community spirit.
- May not be jobs available and so this turns to crime.
- Better quality of life when moved.
- This area is in the North-East of Brazil.
- The village of Pau Ferro is in this region, 500km from the coast and 100km from the nearest town.
- Push = High temperatures, low and unreliable rainfall, high infant mortality rate, lack of education and jobs and poor transport links.
- Pull = Better job opportunities, better education, a reliable food supply and more medicine/doctors,
Rio de Janeiro
- Located in the over-populated South-East of Brazil.
- The distribution of residential areas is different to MEDCs.
- Rich live near the CBD and the poor live on the edge of the city.
- High status housing surrounds the CBD, such as high rise buildings.
- This area has good infrastructure.
- Surrounding this is poor to medium housing which started as a shanty town but have been provided with basic amenities.
- Shanty towns are found on the steep hillsides, swamps or waste land.
- Modern factories are found along main roads, sometimes with favelas in between.
Improvements to Favelas
- Self-help schemes.
- Since 1995, the Rio city has spent $500,000 on the 'Favela-Barrio'.
- Roçinha was created in the 1950s and its population has swelled to 160,000.
- Community committees here represent different neighbourhoods to identify peoples needs.
- Roçinha now has two newspapers of its own, a radio station, its own waste disposal service and local doctors and dentists who offer lower chargers.
Planning Issues in Built Environments
Related Case Study: London olympic park
Who is Involved?
- The Lower Lee Valley forms the boundary between the boroughs of Newham, Hackney, Waltham Forest and Tower Hamlets.
- It stretches about 5km from Stratford to the River Thames.
- The London Legacy Development Corporation's Board is in charge of the site.
- They have published a plan called 'Queen Elizabeth Park 2030'.
- Lack of job opportunities and low wages.
- Increase of traffic which blocked normal routes and created noise.
- 450 flats and a Christican centre were demolished.
- 'The Clays Lane' residents were forced to move out of their flats.
- Loss of community spirit.
- A new site had to be found for travellers.
- Over 900 businesses were relocated and jobs were lost.
Sustainable Residential Areas
- Most of the land was brownfield abandoned industrial sites.
- The redevelopment cleared up the land and made it useful again.
- Improved the environment by cleaning up over 2 million tonnes of soil.
- The 'River Lea' was cleaned up and fish and newts returned to it.
- Transport systems of the area have been improved.
- 97% of materials from the orginial site were reused/recycled.
- Opened to the public in 2014.
- Velodrome and the Copper Box can host world-class events.
Curitiba in Brazil
- Sustainable planning to tackle the increase in traffic, the poor residents and the increase in waste.
- Cheap bus fare and buses run every 90 seconds on some routes.
- Rubbish is collected into organic and non-organic.
- Old buses have been converted into mobile classrooms.
Rural Change and Planning Issues
Relates Case Study: Peak district national park
Leire in Leicestershire
- Population of 250-300 people.
- In 1930, only 86 properties.
- Population risen to over 550 today.
- Number of properties increased to over 200.
Push Factors (Leicester):
- Air pollution affects health.
- Higher crime rate than in the countryside.
Pull Factors (Leire):
- Accessible to other parts of the country via the motorway system.
- Mam Tor - Limestone hill near castleton.
- Dove Dale - Limestone valley in the South of the Peak District.
- Peak Cavern - Limestone cavern in Castleton.
- Chatsworth House - Near Bakewell.
- Peveril Castle - In Castleton.
- Bakewell - Pudding shop in Bakewell.
About 8 million people visit the Peak District a year. Penine Way was a walking route that starts in Edale.
- Traffic Congestion.
- Footpath erosion resulting from overuse.
- Conflict with other land user.
How are these problems being tackled?:
- Footpatch erosion has been improved by re-routing paths or surfacing them with local stone.
- An increasing number of litter bins have been provided throughout the villages.
- A 'Stop The Drop' campaign.
- Traffic restrictions in some areas - prohibits the use of recreational motor vehicles along the Chapel Gate route for 18 months.
- 'Get A Grip' campaign.