Variation in Quality of Life and Access to Housing

Related Case Study: Nottingham housing patterns.

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Central Business District (CBD)

  • High land prices.
  • High rise buildings.
  • Shops, offices, government buildings, entertainment.
  • Centre of the transport networks.
  • Lack of housing due to high costs of the land.
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Inner City


  • 19th century terraced housing.
  • Within 1-2km of the CBD zone.
  • Owner occupies or privately rented.
  • Lack of transport meant houses built next to factories for walking distance work.
  • Narrow streets.
  • Lack of parking spaces.


  • 1950s and 1960s council built tower blocks.
  • Brownfield sites to build new houses.
  • Student population was built here.
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  • Gardens, wider roads, garages, drives, schools and local shops.

Inner Suburbs

  • 1930s semi-detached housing.
  • 4-5km from the CBD.


  • 1950s large detached housing.
  • Private house buildings.
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Urban-Rural Fringe

  • Some characteristics of the city and some of the country side.
  • Housing and shops V Open space and fields.
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Different Groups of People

  • Radford - Ethnic minorities, students and first time buyers.
  • Lenton - Low income families.
  • Wollaton - Higher income families and professional people.
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Access to Services and Changing Service Provision

Related Case Study: Nottingham shopping.

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Shops - CBD

  • Chain stores, department stores, markets, specialist shops and covered shopping centres.
  • Most accessible part of the city so more people can reach these shops.
  • Land prices high but enough customers to fulfil their 'threshhold population'.
  • Mainly sell 'High Order Goods'.
  • High land prices means shops go upwards not sideways.
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Shops - Inner City

  • Second hand shops, corner shops, take-aways and large units.
  • Poorer population and so people will have a demand for second hand goods.
  • There will be a 'ribbon development' where the shops are in a line.
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Shops - Suburbs

  • Corner shops.
  • Accessible by foot.
  • Shops used to be family owned but have been taken over by chains.
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Shops - Urban-Rural Fringe

  • One storey large stores.
  • Accessible for motorway system for deliveries.
  • Lower land price so shops can occupy a larger land area.
  • Free car parking.
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Different Groups of People

  • Car owners / non-car owners - affects how easy it is to reach out of town sites.
  • Poor / wealthier people - affects whether they need to buy second hand goods or not.
  • Disabled / able bodied - affects access to the shop specially old shops with narrow doorways.
  • People with specialist needs - Muslims who need to buy Halal meats.
  • People with / without access to the internet - people are forced to pay high street prices.
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Changes in Shopping Patterns

Out of town shopping:

  • Most shops used to be located in the CBD ..
  • .. Cheaper land means that companies can have bigger shops than they could afford in the CBD.

Internet shopping:

  • Many more people buy goods online ..
  • .. More choice online and people can comparison shops from the comfort of their own home. They can also shop at a time that suits them.


  • Large supermarkets have replaced a lot of local traditional shops ..
  • .. People with busy lives want to do their shopping in one place, once a week.
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Access to Services and Changing Service Provision

Related Case Study: Barcelona leisure

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  • Barcelona is located in North-East Spain. It is in the Region of Catalonia and is the second larges city in Spain, with a population of 1.6 million.
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Leisure Facility - Beach

  • In the East of the city, boarding on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Many of the beaches and the surroundings were redeveloped when Barcelona hosted the 1992 Olympics.
  • Things to do = Windsurfing, swim, kite surfing and beach huts.
  • Cost = Free.
  • Access = Metro station 10 minutes away by foot. Cycle path alongside.
  • Groups of people = All age groups. Disabled (wooden paths onto the beach for wheelchairs).
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Leisure Facility - Camp Nou

  • It is the largest stadium in Europe, home to Barcelona FC.
  • Things to do = Attend matches there plus there is the Nou Camp experience.
  • Cost = 23€ for adults and 17€ for 6-13 year olds. Free for young children. Match tickets are over 50€ minimum price.
  • Access = Metro links and bus routes near the stadium.
  • Groups of people = Football fans, families and older people. Disabled visitors in the museum but not all the stadium is accessible due to steps.
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Leisure Facility - La Sagrada Familia

  • The most famous landmark in Barcelona.
  • The unfinished gothic cathedral was designed by Antoni Gaudi and started in 1882.
  • Things to do = View the famous architecture, go up one of the towers and visit the museum.
  • Cost = 15€ for all except for children under 10 and disabled people. 20€ to visit the tower.
  • Access = Metro and bus routes.
  • Groups of people = Disabled people can't access the towers. Expensive for families. Christians visit free.
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Leisure Facility - Las Ramblas

  • Famous shopping street.
  • Street entertainers like mime artists.
  • Things to do = Shop, go to the theatre, watch street entertainers and eat.
  • Cost = Free to stroll but shops cover a range of prices. Free to watch the street entertainers.
  • Access = The street is pedestrianised but there is nearby access to the metro and bus routes.
  • Groups of people = Anyone can go here as it is a wide, flat street. Some would not be able to afford the price of some shops and restaurants.
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Related Case Study: Brazil rural-urban migration

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  • Mainly happening in LEDCs.
  • People move from the countryside to cities for a better life.
  • Most people who migrate are poor and so this leads to an increase in favelas.
  • Push = Crops fail, lack of health care, lack of drinking water, lack of education opportunities, war and/or disease.
  • Pull = Job opportunities, the bright lights, access to health care and education and/or to be with relatives who have laready moved there.
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Affects of Migration

  • Migrants may send money back to their home vilages.
  • Rural depopulation reduces the pressure on the land.
  • Gender imbalance due to men leaving first.
  • Loss of community spirit.
  • May not be jobs available and so this turns to crime.
  • Better quality of life when moved.
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The Caatinga

  • This area is in the North-East of Brazil.
  • The village of Pau Ferro is in this region, 500km from the coast and 100km from the nearest town.
  • Push = High temperatures, low and unreliable rainfall, high infant mortality rate, lack of education and jobs and poor transport links.
  • Pull = Better job opportunities, better education, a reliable food supply and more medicine/doctors,
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Rio de Janeiro

  • Located in the over-populated South-East of Brazil.
  • The distribution of residential areas is different to MEDCs.
  • Rich live near the CBD and the poor live on the edge of the city.
  • High status housing surrounds the CBD, such as high rise buildings.
  • This area has good infrastructure.
  • Surrounding this is poor to medium housing which started as a shanty town but have been provided with basic amenities.
  • Shanty towns are found on the steep hillsides, swamps or waste land.
  • Modern factories are found along main roads, sometimes with favelas in between.
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Improvements to Favelas

  • Self-help schemes.
  • Since 1995, the Rio city has spent $500,000 on the 'Favela-Barrio'.
  • Roçinha was created in the 1950s and its population has swelled to 160,000.
  • Community committees here represent different neighbourhoods to identify peoples needs.
  • Roçinha now has two newspapers of its own, a radio station, its own waste disposal service and local doctors and dentists who offer lower chargers.
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Planning Issues in Built Environments

Related Case StudyLondon olympic park

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Who is Involved?

  • The Lower Lee Valley forms the boundary between the boroughs of Newham, Hackney, Waltham Forest and Tower Hamlets.
  • It stretches about 5km from Stratford to the River Thames.
  • The London Legacy Development Corporation's Board is in charge of the site.
  • They have published a plan called 'Queen Elizabeth Park 2030'.
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  • Lack of job opportunities and low wages.
  • Increase of traffic which blocked normal routes and created noise.
  • 450 flats and a Christican centre were demolished.
  • 'The Clays Lane' residents were forced to move out of their flats.
  • Loss of community spirit.
  • A new site had to be found for travellers.
  • Over 900 businesses were relocated and jobs were lost.
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Sustainable Residential Areas

  • Most of the land was brownfield abandoned industrial sites.
  • The redevelopment cleared up the land and made it useful again.
  • Improved the environment by cleaning up over 2 million tonnes of soil.
  • The 'River Lea' was cleaned up and fish and newts returned to it.
  • Transport systems of the area have been improved.
  • 97% of materials from the orginial site were reused/recycled.
  • Opened to the public in 2014.
  • Velodrome and the Copper Box can host world-class events.
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Curitiba in Brazil

  • Sustainable planning to tackle the increase in traffic, the poor residents and the increase in waste.
  • Cheap bus fare and buses run every 90 seconds on some routes.
  • Rubbish is collected into organic and non-organic.
  • Old buses have been converted into mobile classrooms.
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Rural Change and Planning Issues

Relates Case Study: Peak district national park

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Leire in Leicestershire

Before 1950s:

  • Population of 250-300 people.
  • In 1930, only 86 properties.

After 1950s:

  • Population risen to over 550 today.
  • Number of properties increased to over 200.

Push Factors (Leicester):

  • Air pollution affects health.
  • Higher crime rate than in the countryside.

Pull Factors (Leire):

  • Accessible to other parts of the country via the motorway system.
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Physical Attractions:

  • Mam Tor - Limestone hill near castleton.
  • Dove Dale - Limestone valley in the South of the Peak District.
  • Peak Cavern - Limestone cavern in Castleton.

Human Attractions:

  • Chatsworth House - Near Bakewell.
  • Peveril Castle - In Castleton.
  • Bakewell - Pudding shop in Bakewell.

 About 8 million people visit the Peak District a year. Penine Way was a walking route that starts in Edale. 

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  • Litter.
  • Traffic Congestion.
  • Footpath erosion resulting from overuse.
  • Conflict with other land user.

How are these problems being tackled?:

  • Footpatch erosion has been improved by re-routing paths or surfacing them with local stone.
  • An increasing number of litter bins have been provided throughout the villages.
  • A 'Stop The Drop' campaign.
  • Traffic restrictions in some areas - prohibits the use of recreational motor vehicles along the Chapel Gate route for 18 months.
  • 'Get A Grip' campaign.
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