Geography Theme 1 & 2


Geography Theme 1

Describe the processes of urbanisation, sub-urbanisation and re-urbanisation and identify key differences between them.

Urbanisation means an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas. An urban area is a built-up area such as a town or city. A rural area is an area of countryside. As a country industrialises, the number of people living in urban areas tends to increase.

Suburbanisation can be defined as the outward growth of urban development which may engulf surrounding villages and towns into a larger urban agglomeration. Indeed, the suburbs are the outlying areas of a city which are close enough to the city centre to be accessible by commuters.

Re-urbanisation refers to the movement of people back into an area that has. been previously abandoned. Re-urbanisation is usually a government's initiative to counter the problem of inner city decline. Inner-city decline usually occurs when problems such as pollution, overpopulation, inadequate housing, etc. arise.

1 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Give the meaning of counter-urbanisation.

Counter urbanisation is when large numbers of people move from urban areas into surrounding countryside or rural areas.

2 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Give the meaning of commuting.

Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, and in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community. It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between locations, even when not work-related.

3 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Give two examples of ways rural areas in the UK are changing.

The less accessible (remote) rural areas have a decreasing population. In these less accessible rural areas many of the younger population move out. Push factors for the young people are the shortage of jobs and a lack of social life.

The depopulation in remote areas means the local services decline. Independent stores and post offices become less profitable because of rural depopulation. Bus services may decline leaving the elderly cut off.

4 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Describe the distinctive features of at least three different zones within the UK towns and cities.

There are 40 universities in London, 

5 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Give the meaning of greenfield and brownfield.

Greenfield sites are areas of land, usually agricultural or amenity land, which are being considered for urban development.

Brownfield land is any previously developed land that is not currently in use whether it is contaminated or not.

6 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Give the meaning of key retail terms - range, threshold population and catchment area.

Range means the maximum distance that people are willing to travel in order to purchase a product or use a service.

A threshold population is the minimum number of people necessary before a particular good or service can be provided in an area.

catchment area is the area from which a city, service or institution attracts a population that uses its services. For example, a school catchment area is the geographic area from which students are eligible to attend a local school.

7 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Describe the main features of high street and out of town retail locations.

Out of town retail centres should be located where people can get to them easily. Building shopping centres near good transport routes and motorway junctions can help. Large parking spaces are ideal because all the people that visit need to have somewhere to put their vechiles. There should also be a wide variety of shops to attract more people to come from different or further locations.

8 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Describe how leisure use can damage the environment.

Noise pollution from the increased amount of people, animals habitats destroyed from building and the area becomes more congested due to the large flow of people trying to go to the leisure facility.

9 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Explain why people commute.

Some people choose to commute to London from the countryside because the houses in the rural areas are much cheaper than where they work. Another reason is that the job pays well so they don't mind travelling further.

10 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Give three reasons why some people move from cities to the countryside.

In the countryside the houses are much cheaper, It is less congested. They like to live by natural environments e.g beach, fields.

11 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Explain why one region in the UK needs more houses.

Hampshire is a county in the UK that needs more houses because otherwise milions will go homeless and that will increase poverty and possibly even the crime rates.

12 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Give two reasons why some people leave rural areas of the UK.

The pay is often lower in rural areas than in urban areas of the UK. There aren't many shops or services that are frequent and nearby.

13 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Give two reasons why retailing in some high streets is in decline.

Online shopping now means that people can order items from their home so their is no need to waste fuel to drive to the high street. Big companies are opening up new stores which means people shop there rather than in high streets.

14 of 17

Geography Theme 2

Give the meaning of each of these terms:

Weathering, mass movement, geology and coastal management.

Weathering is the breakdown of rocks at the Earth's surface, by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity. It does not involve the removal of rock material. There are three types of weathering, physical, chemical and biological.

Mass movement is the movement of surface material caused by gravity. Landslides and rockfalls are examples of very sudden movements of this type.

Geology is the scientific study of the origin of the Earth along with its rocks, minerals, land forms, and life forms, and of the processes that have affected them over the course of the Earth's history.

Coastal management is defence against flooding and erosion, and techniques that stop erosion to claim lands.The techniques that manage these physic processes can be divided into hard engineering options (such as building sea walls) and soft engineering options (such as beach nourishment and managed retreat).

15 of 17

Geography Theme 1

Describe each erosion term:

Hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition and solution

Hydraulic action is when air may become trapped in joints and cracks on a cliff face. When a wave breaks, the trapped air is compressed which weakens the cliff and causes erosion.

Abrasion is when bits of rock and sand in waves grind down cliff surfaces like sandpaper.

Attrition is when waves smash rocks and pebbles on the shore into each other, and they break and become smoother.

Solution is when acids contained in sea water will dissolve some types of rock such as chalk or limestone.

16 of 17

Geography Theme 2

Describe how longshore drift transports material.

Waves that hit the beach at an angle carry sand and gravel up the beach face at an angle. When the water washes back the sediment is carried straight back down the beach face. Individual particles are moved along the beach in a zig zag pattern.

17 of 17




This is exactly what I was looking for - a little more detail would be amazing though x

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Urban environments resources »