Geography Case Studies: Theme 4

Case studies to learn for Theme 4. 

  • Created by: maariya
  • Created on: 17-11-12 12:25

Theme 4: Water Aid in Mali- Sustainable Aid? (1)

  • NGO's have been more effective at directing towards sustainable aid than Government agencies, using appropriate technology and involving locals.
  • Water Aid works in Mali where rainfall levels are rapidly falling and desertification is spreading.
  • They are running schemes around slums surrounding Mali's capital providing clean water and sanitation to the poorest of people. 
  • It is to demonstrate to governments etc. that projects in slums can be successful socially and economically. 
  • It has financed the construction of the area's water network. 
  • Training local people to manage the system and raise money to keep it operational. 
  • Encourages the community to invest in it's infrastructure. 
  • Putting their energy into educational programmes and empowering communities to continue their own development in the future. 
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Theme 4: Water Aid in Mali- Sustainable Aid? (2)

  • Already there have been significant improvements in general health of community. 

Cycle of benefits

  • Safe water + Sanitation + Hygiene education 
  • Maximises health benefits
  • Without disease communities are stronger
  • Therefore more people work and attend school, people save money spent on medicines, time saved on collecting water used productively
  • Economy grows and develops
  • The combination above maximises health benefits and promotes development. 
  • It can reduce number of deaths caused by diarrhoeal diseases by 65%.
  • In the long term communities can plan and build infrastructure so can cope better in times of hardship. 
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Theme 4: Nike- New international division of labou

  • Nike is the world's leading supplier of footwear, apparel and equipment. 
  • It doesn't make products it's self but contracts production to S.Korean/Taiwanese companies.
  • They sub-contracted companies operate in other lower-wage Asian economies e.g. Vietnam, Philippines and Indonesia. 
  • Nike expertise is design and marketing. The way Nike operates is an example of the new international division of labour (NIDL). 

Benefits from Nike operating in Vietnam

  • Substantial employment in Vietnam paying higher wages than most local companies.
  • Improves local population skill base.
  • Attracted other MNC's to Vietnam= cumulative causation.
  • Contribution to local tax base can be used for infrastructure.


  • Company advertising and image undermines national culture.
  • Investment can be quickly transferred to lower cost locations in other countries. 
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Theme 4: Nike- New international division of labou

International context

  • It aims to produce new shoes on a regular basis to cater for niche markets. 
  • To do this it buys necessary expertise at short notice. It involves short-term subcontracts allocated to firms based near to Nike's research and development HQ. 
  • There have been "sweatshop allegations" so Nike created a report of the 700 factories producing it's clothing. 
  • Pressure groups said this is an important step forward in improving conditons for workers in poor countries. Nike could be the global leader in corporate responsibility. 
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Theme 4: China's Pearl River Delta (1)

  • Labelled as "the workshop of the world". 
  • Region the size of Belgium in SE China. 

Environmental problems 

  • Three major problems are air pollution, water pollution and deforestation. 
  • 45% of rainfall is acid rain and 2/3 of one city affected by acid rain. 
  • Half of waste water isn't treated before being dumped in rivers. 
  • Almost all of urban areas have over exploited their neighbouring uplands, causing a considerable reduction in vegetation cover leading to erosion. 
  • Environmental Protection Bureau classified the situation as "severe" and they are taking measures to improve the situation. 
  • Measures used to tackle problem include: (a) higher sewage treatment charges, (b) stricter pollution regulations on factories, (c) tougher national regulations on vehicle emissions. 
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Theme 4: China's Pearl River Delta (2)

Industries in regions

  • Honda, pharmaceuticals, food, beverages, chemicals, electrical appliances.
  • Largest centre for production for microwave ovens.
  • Major centre of electrical lighting industry in the world. 
  • Major manufacturer of PC games, consoles, golf clubs.
  • Specialises in running shoes, 80,000 people employed in one factory.
  • Produces 70% of world's photocopiers and 80% of artificial Christmas trees. 
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