- Henry's lands being labelled as 'ANGEVIN EMIPRE' is open to debate
- KATE NORGATE: First to suggest this title writing about british imperialism 1887
- MICHELET(french historian) developed the term-writing about Henry II's intrusion in France
Historians used the term 'Empire' to strengthen their own argument rather then actual land organisation.
- BARLOW: (pro-empire) still 'They were not an empire in the sense that the British and Roman Empires were'.
- WARREN: A more legitimate term to use is 'commonwealth'
All historians are unified in agreeing Henry's methods of governing were ALL to his advantage therefore the most accurate term to define the lands is GILLINGHAM'S CONCLUSION OF A 'FAMILY FIRM.
LINKS OF ADMIN & TAX
Examples of initial inicetives:
- Exchequer- present in Normandy,England,Anjou,Aquitaine &Brittany.
- Inquest of the sheriffs 1169 & Norman Inquest - Unity between role of sheriffs.
- Interdict 1177- increased organisation of taxes.
- However, these initial inicetives were only a small percentage of Hnery's Government. BENJEMIN highlights each of the lands had 'INDIVIDUAL ADMIN OFFICES'
- NO COMMON CURRENCY like Roman Empire.
PUNCH: Henry had no intention of centerilising- BENJEMIN- Henry rules his land 'each accoradance with the laws and customs of that land'
- Knew he did not have enough status and authoirty over terriroty such as Aquitaine to impose such cohesion.
ADMIN AND TAX NOT JUSTAFIABLY UNIFIED ENOUGH TO CALL AN EMIPRE.
Superificailly evidence can be found in common culture.
Examples in favour:
- Patronage of Elanor made the French language & music partially evident throughout lands.
Counter: Only available to the socail elite.
BARLOW: Henry 'did little to the native customs' of each land.
ALLEN: Henry had no intention in creating common culture as he was advised by Geoffrey to allow lands to keep individuality.
PUNCH: Henry respected a lands individuality-the castles he built England,Normandy,Anjou,Aquitaine,Maurine,Touraine- all built according to individual design.
OVERALL: Henry's lands kept their individuality with regards to cultural features-therfore not viewed as a united empire.
ADMIN & CHURCH POSITIONING.
Henry was the key leader but evidence shows their were shared admin and church positions
A COMMON BUREUCRACY THROUGH THE 'EMPIRE'
Examples in favour:
- John of canterbury was also Bishop of Poitiers
- William of Ilchester helped to develop the Norman Exchequer.
COUNTER: These examples were an exception- Genrally the Angevin Elite did not dominate church and government.
PUNCH: All decisions made by Henry were to benefit his own family.
Henry made all of the overall decisions, but they were all driven in benefitting himself rather than his lands. Therefore they cannot be deemed as an Emipre.
ARE THEY EVEN ANGEVIN?
Some historians argue over justifiably naming the lands an 'ANGEVIN DYNASTY'
- Originates from Anjou where Hnery's predesessors first held control of lands.
However, some historians argue that when the hub of power moved to England and Normandy, Anjou became insignificant- politically more of a province.
PUNCH: Henry maintained the Angevin term as it is SYMBOLIC OF HIS POWER ORIGINS. It is also A RECONGISED TERM for his family name- UNECCESARY TO BE ANYTHING OTHER THAN THE VIABLE TERM-'ANGEVIN'
THE WILL 1170
Key Evidence that he did not intend the lands to be anything more than a 'FAMILY FIRM'
- Split all lands between his sons
- GILLINGHAM: 'Hnery was determined that all of his sons would hold princely status'
- Young Henry- Normandy,England,Anjou.
- Geoffrey- Brittany
The inheritence choices did not go to plan due to the unpredicted death of two sons.
This should not undemine the initial intentions of Henry to split the lands which shows IT WAS NOT CONSIDERED AN EMPIRE BY THE RULER HIMSELF.
- Some common factors-Exchquer
- Not a plan to fully centerilse but increase convinience.
- Henry's aim was to make the lands benefit his family alone.
GILLINGHAMS TERM 'FAMILY FIRM' IS THE MOST ACCURATE.
EVIDENCE: - Richard was a strong leader so maintained royal authority.
- John weak and so the lands fell apart.
PUNCH: Family lands,run by family,for the benefit of the family.
Angevin is a viable term: lands were no more french than english- Angevin had symbolism,recognistion and used by thre King himself.
Lands were not an Empire but were Angevin.