Nationalism in 19th Century Europe

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Debates surrounding Nationalism

Marxist view - nations are invented to break class continuity 

Nationalist view - nations are natural 

Modernist view - invented by the elite 

Postmodernist view - invented by ourselves

Smiths' view - nations are discovered

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Five Stages of Nationalism

1. The Need for a Nation 

Herder/Fitche - Western examples 

Inspired by opposition to autocracy and liberalism. 

Rule of empires shows the need for nationalism 

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Five Stages of Nationalism (2)

2. Identifying the Nation 

History - Finns conquered by the Swiss and Russians. Estonians and Latvians conquered by many. Need for a state beforehand to be able to identity it e.g. Poland - is the history the right guide?

Language - no standardised language 

Religion - oppression of religion limits nationalism 

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Five Stages of Nationalism (3)

3. Justifying the Nation 

End of nation of nobility. Peasantry - historic deposit. Peasantry nation's essence 

Liberalism - empowering the nation, opposition to autocratic rule, mass education and democratisation. 

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Five Stages of Nationalism (4)

4. Creating the Nation 

Violence, revoluton and rebellions (Poland and Russia). Can lead to more repression (Poland)

Polish revolts - failure immense. Out-numbered by Imperial Army.

Romantic Nationalism. 

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Five Stages of Nationalism (5)

5. Purging the Nation 

New states after 1918 - promoted the "national language." 

Restructured the rights of minorities and created modern states. 

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