Debates surrounding Nationalism
Marxist view - nations are invented to break class continuity
Nationalist view - nations are natural
Modernist view - invented by the elite
Postmodernist view - invented by ourselves
Smiths' view - nations are discovered
Five Stages of Nationalism
1. The Need for a Nation
Herder/Fitche - Western examples
Inspired by opposition to autocracy and liberalism.
Rule of empires shows the need for nationalism
Five Stages of Nationalism (2)
2. Identifying the Nation
History - Finns conquered by the Swiss and Russians. Estonians and Latvians conquered by many. Need for a state beforehand to be able to identity it e.g. Poland - is the history the right guide?
Language - no standardised language
Religion - oppression of religion limits nationalism
Five Stages of Nationalism (3)
3. Justifying the Nation
End of nation of nobility. Peasantry - historic deposit. Peasantry nation's essence
Liberalism - empowering the nation, opposition to autocratic rule, mass education and democratisation.
Five Stages of Nationalism (4)
4. Creating the Nation
Violence, revoluton and rebellions (Poland and Russia). Can lead to more repression (Poland)
Polish revolts - failure immense. Out-numbered by Imperial Army.
Five Stages of Nationalism (5)
5. Purging the Nation
New states after 1918 - promoted the "national language."
Restructured the rights of minorities and created modern states.