Translation - Ribosomes, tRNA and Prokaryotes
- Two subunits
- Move along mRNA strand = mRNA strand slides along ribosomal groove, where it reads the code and assembles the amino acids in the specified order.
- Order of amino acids is critical because the primary structure forms the basis of any protein, which determines the tertiary structure (how the protein folds and is held by hydrogen and ionic bonds, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions.)
- The tertiary structure allows the correct function of the protein, if the primary structure is wrong the protein will not work correctly. Example: enzyme active sites will not be complementary to substrate and channel proteins are not the correct shape to allow ions through.
- Made in nucleus and passes into cytoplasm
- Has three unpaired bases, known as an anticodon, which binds temporarily to the complementary codon on the mRNA molecule
- Translation begins as soon as mRNA is made because the DNA is free in the cytoplasm
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