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2.3.9 Sustainable Management
· The human population is growing quickly ­ humans have had to use more intensive methods to exploit our environment for
· This can disrupt or destroy ecosystems, reduce biodiversity, and even get rid of the resource we originally wanted to
Managing Small-Scale Timber Production
· Coppicing involves cutting a tree trunk close to the ground to encourage new growth.
· Several new shoots grow from the cut surface and eventually mature into stems. These can be cut and used for fencing etc.
· New shoots will then grow again and the coppice cycle continues.
· Pollarding involves cutting the trunk higher up ­ useful when the deer population is large as they like to eat emerging shoots
from a coppiced stem.
· Rotational coppicing is when woodland managers divide a wood into sections and cut one section each year until they've all
been cut. By the time they want to coppice the first section again, the new stems have matured.
Managing Large-Scale Timber Production
· Large-scale production of wood for timber often involves clear-felling all the trees in one area ­ this can destroy habitats on
a large scale. This can reduce soil mineral levels and leave soil susceptible to erosion.
· Modern sustainable forestry works on the following principles:
­ Any tree harvested is replaced by another tree.
­ The forest must maintain its ecological function regarding climate + mineral + water cycles + biodiversity.
­ Local people should benefit from the forest.
· Selective cutting involves removing only the largest, most valuable trees ­ habitat is broadly unaffected.…read more

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2.3.10 Conservation
· Conservation is the maintenance of biodiversity, including diversity between species, genetic diversity within species, and
maintenance of a variety of habitats and ecosystems.
Why is Conservation Important?
· Increasing human population can threaten biodiversity through:
­ Over-exploitation of wild populations for food, sport, commerce.
­ Habitat disruption due to intensive agricultural practices, increased population, or widespread building.
­ Species introduced to an ecosystem by humans may out-compete native species.
· Every species has value in its own right, has the right to survive, humans have an ethical responsibility to look after them.
· Many species have direct economic value when harvested (eg. Food source, environments are a source of beneficial
resources, predators can act as control agents).
· Many species also have indirect economic value (eg. Insects are responsible for pollinating crops ­ without them, crops
would fail).
· Ecotourism + recreation in the countryside also have significant social + financial value ­ they look nice!…read more

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2.3.11 Humans + The Galapagos
· Lots of the species on the Galapagos islands are classed as endangered.
· More people now live there because of the developing tourist trade.
Habitat Disturbance
· The increase in population size has placed huge demands on water, energy and sanitation services.
· More waste + pollution have been produced + demand for oil has increased.
· These things and increased building have caused destruction of habitats.
Over-exploitation of Resources
· Species were harvested for trade ­ harvested faster than they could replenish themselves.
· There is one tortoise left because they were taken on ships and eaten.
Introduced Species
· Non-native species came with the humans ­ these non-native species can out-compete natives, eat natives, destroy native's
habitats and bring diseases.…read more


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