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Module 1

A stimulus is any change in the environment that causes a response.

A response is a change in behaviour or physiology as a result of a change in the environment.

Homeostasis is the maintenance of the internal environment in a constant state despite external

Negative Feedback…

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Local currents are the movements of ions along the neurone. The flow of ions is caused by an
increase in concentration at one point, which causes diffusion away from the region of higher

Saltatory conduction means `jumping conduction'. It refers to the way that the action potential
appears to…

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Hyperglycaemia is the state in which the blood glucose concentration is too high.

Hypoglycaemia is the state in which the blood glucose levels are too low.

Genetically engineered bacteria re those in which the DNA has been altered. In this case a gene
coding form human insulin has been inserted…

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Module 2

Excretion is the removal of metabolic waste from the body.

Metabolic waste consists of waste substances that may be toxic or are produced in excess by the
reactions inside cells

Egestion is the removal of undigested food by the process of defecation.

Deamination is the removal of the…

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Detoxification is the conversion of toxic molecules to less toxic or non-toxic molecules.

The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. It is a microscopic tubule that receives fluid from the
blood capillaries in the cortex and converts this to urine, which drains into the ureter.

The glomerulus is…

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The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that contains neurosecretory cells and various receptors
that monitor the blood.

Neurosecretory cells are specialised cells that act like nerve cells but release a hormone into the
blood. ADH is manufactured in the cell body and passes down the axon to be…


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