Nervous system, movement and muscle

This powerpoint covers The Brain, Nervous system (CNS, PNS and ANS) in relevant detail, Types of muscle, Movement (including power stroke, neuromuscular junctions/synovial joint)

Includes relevant diagrams found in google images.

Some is in note form but should hopefully be useful regardless :)

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Nervous system,
Movement and Muscle
Unit 2 Module 4…read more

Slide 2

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The Brain
Responsible for muscular Controls non-skeletal
Largest part of brain; 2
movement to keep body muscles (cardiac &
hemispheres connected
position upright, judging involuntary) e.g. smooth
via the corpus callosum.
position of objects, muscle in gut wall.
Responsible for thought, tensioning of muscles, Includes cardiac centre
emotion, overriding operation on antagonistic (regulates heart rate) and
reflexes, reasoning etc. muscles. respiratory centre.
Processes sensory info
from the retina, balance HYPOTHALAMUS
CEREBRAL CORTEX organs in the inner ear, Controls ANS and
Sensory areas spindle fibres and joints. endocrine glands .:
Association areas homestatic mechanisms.
Motor areas; on left side control
muscular movement on right side of
body and vice versa.…read more

Slide 3

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The Brain
Oblongata…read more

Slide 4

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Nervous system
Peripheral Nervous Peripheral Nervous
System System
Motor Neurones
Sensory Neurones Central Nervous
CNS is made up of:
Grey matter; billions of non-myelinated neurones
White matter; longer, myelinated axons & dendrons that carry impulses.
PNS is made up of neurones that carry impulses into and out of CNS (sensory & motor)
Somatic: motor neurones carry impulses to skeletal muscle (voluntary)
Autonomic: carry impulses from CNS to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands (involuntary)…read more

Slide 5

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Autonomic Nervous System
· Most neurones non-myelinated
· Connections to effectors consist of at least 2 neurones, connecting at a ganglion (swelling)
· Motor neurones are 2 types: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic.
Parasympathetic Sympathetic
Most active in sleep or relaxation Most active in times of stress
Neurones of a pathway are linked at a ganglion Neurones of a pathway are linked at a ganglion
within target tissue. just outside spinal cord.: pre ganglionic
neurones are very short.
Post-ganglionic neurones secret acetylcholine at Post-ganglionic neurones secrete noradrenaline
synapse between neurone and effector at synapse between neurone and effector
Effects of action: decreased heart and ventilation Effects of action: increased heart and ventilation
rates, pupil constriction, sexual arousal. rates, pupil dilation and orgasm.…read more

Slide 6

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Coordinated Movement
1. Impulses arriving at Definitions:
neuromuscular junction cause Neuromuscular junction is a specialised
vesicles to fuse with pre-
synapse which occurs at the end of a motor
synaptic membrane and
neurone where it meets the muscle fibre.
release Ach into the gap
Release of acetylcholine (Ach) following
2. Ach binds to receptors on depolarisation stimulates contractn of muscle
sarcolemma causing fibre.
3. Depolarisation wave travels
Gradation of response More motor units
down tubules
stimulated results in greater force of
4. T system depolarisation leads contraction.
to Ca2+ release from
sarcoplasmic reticulum
5. Ca2+ binds to proteins in
muscle.: contractn occurs.
6. Acetylcholinesterase in `gap'
rapidly breaks down Ach so
contractn only occurs when
impulses arrive continuously…read more

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