media psychology A2 unit 4

research for AO2 on each media topic

  • Created by: rosa :)
  • Created on: 17-06-12 19:42

Evolutional Explanation for the attraction of cele

  • Gossip Theory-  Barkow "gossiping is safer as people do not find out who has been talking about them. 
  • Reproductive stratagies

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intense fandom - Celebrity worship

Things affecting worship levels -

  • age (McCutheon)
  • level of education (McCutheon)
  • exposure (Zajonic mere exposure effect)
  • gender (steuer girls more intense)
  • personality
  • beliefs (reubin- celebrities deserve fame)

McCutheon CAS scale- escapism, intense personal, over identification

Maltby CAS scale- entertainment social, intense personal, borderline pathological

Maltby CAS scale study - 126 males, 181 females CAS score plus mental health questionnaire

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Intense Fandom Celebrity stalking


  • failed sexual relationship
  • absorbtion hypothesis
  • personality theory
  • childhood trauma
  • What ?
  • unwanted, persistant persuit or harassment of a person- kienlen
  • love obsessionals, simple obsessionals, erotomaniacs


  • kienlen- a third of stalkers have either a pathological attachment, or a psychotic disorder
  • meloy- in USA 8% females and 2% males have been stalked 
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The Elaboration Liklihood Model- petty and caciopp

The amout to which we elaborate, focuses on the thoughts of the viewer not just the message its self

Centeral Route- motivated to watch the message think about what they have seen

Peripheral Route- disinterested by message

Vidrine Simmons and Brandon - the need for cognition study

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explanation for the effectiveness of tv in persuas

1. The Hypodermic effect

  • totalitarian regimes
  • bandura
  • subliminal advertising

2. The two step flow theory

3. Uses and Gratification Theory

  • Rogget and Jenson- 420 west german homes introduced with tv...
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Psychological Explanation for the attraction of ce

The Popularity theory

  • parasocial relationship- Horton
  • Aron et al - Cher
  • DeBaker- 838 participants younger more influenced, teacher to friend, more exposure
  • Zajonic Mere exposure effect = trust= like

The personality Theory

  • Simonton- Thematic apperception test

Outsider theory

  • Simonton- Celebrities are often from minority cultures and fame is a way of being included
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Explanations of media on anti social behaviour

desensatisation- see it too much to be affected by it

Social Learning theory- attnetion, retention, motivation, production, vicarious reinforcement, not to hard, in need of rolse model, same sex models


  • Bandura- they copied
  • liebern and baron- found that watching violent media causes aggression
  • robinson and bachman- did a correlation, hours of tv and freaquency
  • Joy et al - introduction of TV into a culture increases violence
  • Parke et al- delinquants are more likely to act verbally and physically aggressive after watching violent media
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Prosocial Behaviour

Longterm- SLT, SCOLT

Short term- arousal effects, sponser effects, cognititve priming


  • Noble- Austrailia Naturally
  • Holloway- good news study
  • Blackman and Hornstein- good new study follow up
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effects of video games on young people


  • Ballard- 119 middle class students, 4 increasingly violent games and then played a memory game with a confederate, measured on how much they punished confederate when they got a memory task wrong.
  • Matthews- MRI scans, 44 students in each group either non or violent game, increased activity in the amagdala, and decreased in the prefrontal cortex
  • Grusser-  12% of gamers in USA according to gaming industry are addicted
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The hovland Yale Model

CMCA- communicator, message, channel, audience

  • hovland and weiss- nuclear submerine
  • Baldyreff and sorokin- same record played twice
  • baron and byrne- speak fast
  • McGuire- two sided
  • McGuire and Papaeorgris- toothbrushing ad
  • Gorn- pen ad
  • sinclaire mark and clore- good bad weather
  • zajonic- mere exposure effect
  • Bornstein- more than 20 times
  • wood and stagner- not too intelligant and not too confident
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