- Created by: Psych951
- Created on: 11-05-18 09:55
- Adaptive change in capacity for behaviour
- Natural Selection
- Learning processes aid survival
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Key Features Expanded
- Learning: A process by which experience produces a relatively enduring and adaptive change in an organism’s capacity for behaviour.
- Not blank slate (bio and cog factors)
- Natural selection
- Charactersitics that aid survival become more common in a population
- Species and personal adaptation
- Learning processes aid survival
- Must learn what events are important to survival (habituation)
- Which stimuli predicts important events (Classical)
- The consequences of an event (Operant).
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- Change in strength of response to repeated stimulus
- Simple learning
- Nervous system
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- Decrease in strength of response to repeated stimulus due to a lack of surival importance
- Sensitisation is the opposite: Increase in strength of response to sudden stimuli that could indicate something important in the environment
- Simple learning - Basic learnt responses based on basic principles of evaluating the environment
- Dictated by the nervous system: Nervous system learns to ignore certain stimuli if properties of the stimuli remain unchanged. When they do change, sensitisation occurs.
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- Learning trials
- Basic principles for successful conditioning
- Spontaneous recovery
- Generalisation and discrimination
- Higher-order conditioning
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Classical Conditioning Expanded
- Association of two stimulus, resulting in one stimulus producing a response that was previously only caused by the other stimulus.
- Pavlov’s dog – Unconditioned stimulus + neutral response = Unconditioned response – Neutral response becomes conditioned = conditioned response.
- Basic principles Inc. repeated pairings, intense stimulus, forward pairing (NS then UCS) and short time intervals.
- Extinction = Conditioned response is weakened due to lack of UCS. = Learnt inhibition
- Spontaneous recovery = Remembering an extinguished association without more learning trials.
- Generalisation and discrimination – Applying or not applying conditioned responses to stimulus similar to conditioned response.
- Higher-order conditioning = Neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus after being paired with an already conditioned stimulus.
- Applications = Phobias (acquiring and over-coming) – Attraction and aversion – Sickness and health.
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- Consequences affect subsequent behaviour
- Main principles: Positive and negative punishment and reinforcement
- Three-part contigency
- Discriminative stimulus
- Primary and secondary reinforcers
- Shaping and chaining
- Stimuli control
- Scehdules: Continus vs. Partial; Fixed vs. Variable; Ratio vs. Interval
- Escape and Avoidance
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Operant Conditioning Expanded
- Relationship between stimulus and own behaviour - Consequences of an event affcet subsequent behaviour - Thorndike's Cat and Skinner's Rat
- Main principles: Positive reinforcement (strengthened response by gaining something nice); negative reinforcement (strengthened response by removing something nasty); Positive punishment (deter response by giving something nasty); Negative punishment (deter response by taking away something nice).
- Three-part contingency (events): Antecedent of behaviour (instruction); Behaviour (response); Consequences (punishment or reinforcement).
- Discriminative stimulus: Signal that a particular response will produce certain consequences
- Primary reinforcers (satisfy biological needs) and secondary (associated with primary)
- Operant extinction: Weakening of response because it’s not reinforced – Resistance occurs.
- Shaping: Reinforcing successive approximations towards desired response to teach new behaviour. – Chaining = Sequence of events which helps reach the final event by providing opportunities.
- Stimuli control = Discriminative stimuli influence behaviour e.g. police car changes driving.
- Schedules = Different patterns and frequencies of reinforcements. – Continuous vs. partial, ratio vs. interval and fixed vs. variable.
- Escape = Learn a response to stop aversive stimulus; avoidance = learn response to avoid
- Applications: Shaping own behaviour, educational settings, police/guide dogs.
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Comparing CC and OC
- Automatic vs. Chosen
- Elicited vs. Emitted
- Association vs. Consequence
- Learning Process can require both
- Both have distinction, generalisation and extinction
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Comparing OC and CC Expanded
- Classical = Automatic, elicited behvaiours due to associations - Natural associations form which produce responses beyond our control
- Operant = Chosen, emitted behaviours due to consequences. - We evaluate the consequences of certain behaviours, leading us to choose responses that will benefit us.
- Many learning processes require both types e.g. avoidance/phobia forming
- Both have discrimination, generalisation and extinction
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- Biological constraints:
- Evolutionary preparedness
- Cognitive constraints:
- Inisght and cognitive maps
- Latent inhibition
- Latent learning
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Challenging Behaviourism Expanded
- Biological Contraints:
- Evolutionary preparedness: Ready to be conditioned to some stimuli more than others due to evolutionary past
- Cognitive Constraints: Between stimulus nd response
- Insight = sudden perception of relationships - Cognitive maps = Mental representations of spatial information
- Latent learning = learning occurs but is not demonstrated until needed
- Expectancy = Expect CS presence to predict UCS
- Blocking = association has already been made with something else, so conditioning won’t work
- Surprise of UCS may affect conditioning
- Latent inhibition = Already seeing a NS before it is paired, therefore weakening conditioning
- Attention we pay to stimulus determines association strength.
- Use this to develop different therapies such as CBT.
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- Models influence own behaviour
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Observational Learning Expanded
- Watching a model's behaviour will influence the type and likelihood of our own behaviour - Direct and vicarious reinforcement - Demnstration of how to behave in novel situations
- Process: Pay attention to model behaviour, remember the behaviour, evaluate whether you have the ability to reproduce the bhevaiour, evaluate whether the behaviour helps achieve your goals.
- Self-effficacy is the belief in one's ability to perform what is needed to meet goals - Drives observational learning
- Habituate responses
- Effective teaching
- Enhance pro-social behaviour
- Tackle problems using media exposure
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- Brain's ability to adapt
- Hebb rule
- No single area
- Reciprocal relationship
- Stimulation from the enviornment
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Adaptive Brain Expanded
- Ability to learn depends on networks of brain structures and brain's ability to adapt to environmental demands
- Hebb rule = Learning due to strengthening synaptic connections by simultaneous activation.
- No single area of brain controls learning.
- Learning affects brain too (reciprocal relationship) – E.g. reducing activity of frontal lobe creating automatic responses. – Physical changes.
- Consolidation = Helps improve skills without practice, perhaps during sleep.
- Stimulation from environment increases brain weight, dendrites, neurotransmitters and synapses = better subsequent learning
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