MB1 - Learning Expand Cards

  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 11-05-18 09:55

Key Features

  • Adaptive change in capacity for behaviour
  • Natural Selection
  • Learning processes aid survival
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Key Features Expanded

  • Learning: A process by which experience produces a relatively enduring and adaptive change in an organism’s capacity for behaviour.
    • Not blank slate (bio and cog factors)
    • Behaviourists
  • Natural selection
    • Charactersitics that aid survival become more common in a population
    • Species and personal adaptation
  • Learning processes aid survival
    • Must learn what events are important to survival (habituation)
    • Which stimuli predicts important events (Classical)
    • The consequences of an event (Operant).
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  • Change in strength of response to repeated stimulus
  • Sensitisation
  • Simple learning
  • Nervous system
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Habituation Expanded

  • Decrease in strength of response to repeated stimulus due to a lack of surival importance 
  • Sensitisation is the opposite: Increase in strength of response to sudden stimuli that could indicate something important in the environment
  • Simple learning - Basic learnt responses based on basic principles of evaluating the environment 
  • Dictated by the nervous system: Nervous system learns to ignore certain stimuli if properties of the stimuli remain unchanged. When they do change, sensitisation occurs.
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Classical Conditioning

  • Association
  • Learning trials
  • Basic principles for successful conditioning 
  • Extinction
  • Spontaneous recovery
  • Generalisation and discrimination
  • Higher-order conditioning 
  • Applications
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Classical Conditioning Expanded

  • Association of two stimulus, resulting in one stimulus producing a response that was previously only caused by the other stimulus.
  • Pavlov’s dog – Unconditioned stimulus + neutral response = Unconditioned response – Neutral response becomes conditioned = conditioned response.
  • Basic principles Inc. repeated pairings, intense stimulus, forward pairing (NS then UCS) and short time intervals.
  • Extinction = Conditioned response is weakened due to lack of UCS. = Learnt inhibition
  • Spontaneous recovery = Remembering an extinguished association without more learning trials.
  • Generalisation and discrimination – Applying or not applying conditioned responses to stimulus similar to conditioned response.
  • Higher-order conditioning = Neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus after being paired with an already conditioned stimulus.
  • Applications = Phobias (acquiring and over-coming) – Attraction and aversion – Sickness and health.
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Operant Conditioning

  • Consequences affect subsequent behaviour
  • Main principles: Positive and negative punishment and reinforcement 
  • Three-part contigency
  • Discriminative stimulus
  • Primary and secondary reinforcers
  • Extinction
  • Shaping and chaining
  • Stimuli control
  • Scehdules: Continus vs. Partial; Fixed vs. Variable; Ratio vs. Interval
  • Escape and Avoidance
  • Applications
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Operant Conditioning Expanded

  • Relationship between stimulus and own behaviour - Consequences of an event affcet subsequent behaviour - Thorndike's Cat and Skinner's Rat
  • Main principles: Positive reinforcement (strengthened response by gaining something nice); negative reinforcement (strengthened response by removing something nasty); Positive punishment (deter response by giving something nasty); Negative punishment (deter response by taking away something nice).
  • Three-part contingency (events): Antecedent of behaviour (instruction); Behaviour (response); Consequences (punishment or reinforcement).
  • Discriminative stimulus: Signal that a particular response will produce certain consequences
  • Primary reinforcers (satisfy biological needs) and secondary (associated with primary)
  • Operant extinction: Weakening of response because it’s not reinforced – Resistance occurs.
  • Shaping: Reinforcing successive approximations towards desired response to teach new behaviour. – Chaining = Sequence of events which helps reach the final event by providing opportunities.
  • Stimuli control = Discriminative stimuli influence behaviour e.g. police car changes driving.
  • Schedules = Different patterns and frequencies of reinforcements. – Continuous vs. partial, ratio vs. interval and fixed vs. variable.
  • Escape = Learn a response to stop aversive stimulus; avoidance = learn response to avoid
  • Applications: Shaping own behaviour, educational settings, police/guide dogs.
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Comparing CC and OC

  • Automatic vs. Chosen
  • Elicited vs. Emitted
  • Association vs. Consequence
  • Learning Process can require both
  • Both have distinction, generalisation and extinction
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Comparing OC and CC Expanded

  • Classical = Automatic, elicited behvaiours due to associations - Natural associations form which produce responses beyond our control 
  • Operant = Chosen, emitted behaviours due to consequences. - We evaluate the consequences of certain behaviours, leading us to choose responses that will benefit us.
  • Many learning processes require both types e.g. avoidance/phobia forming
  • Both have discrimination, generalisation and extinction
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Challenging Behaviourism

  • Biological constraints:
    • Evolutionary preparedness
  • Cognitive constraints:
    • Inisght and cognitive maps
    • Blocking
    • Latent inhibition 
    • Latent learning
    • Expectancy
    • Surprise
    • Attention
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Challenging Behaviourism Expanded

  • Biological Contraints:
    • Evolutionary preparedness: Ready to be conditioned to some stimuli more than others due to evolutionary past
  • Cognitive Constraints: Between stimulus nd response
    • Insight = sudden perception of relationships - Cognitive maps = Mental representations of spatial information
    • Latent learning = learning occurs but is not demonstrated until needed
    • Expectancy = Expect CS presence to predict UCS
    • Blocking = association has already been made with something else, so conditioning won’t work
    • Surprise of UCS may affect conditioning
    • Latent inhibition = Already seeing a NS before it is paired, therefore weakening conditioning
    • Attention we pay to stimulus determines association strength.
    • Use this to develop different therapies such as CBT. 
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Observational Learning

  • Models influence own behaviour
  • Process
  • Self-efficacy
  • Applications
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Observational Learning Expanded

  • Watching a model's behaviour will influence the type and likelihood of our own behaviour - Direct and vicarious reinforcement - Demnstration of how to behave in novel situations
  • Process: Pay attention to model behaviour, remember the behaviour, evaluate whether you have the ability to reproduce the bhevaiour, evaluate whether the behaviour helps achieve your goals. 
  • Self-effficacy is the belief in one's ability to perform what is needed to meet goals - Drives observational learning
  • Applications:
    • Habituate responses
    • Effective teaching
    • Enhance pro-social behaviour
    • Tackle problems using media exposure
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Adaptive Brain

  • Brain's ability to adapt
  • Hebb rule
  • No single area
  • Reciprocal relationship
  • Consolidation
  • Stimulation from the enviornment 
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Adaptive Brain Expanded

  • Ability to learn depends on networks of brain structures and brain's ability to adapt to environmental demands 
  • Hebb rule = Learning due to strengthening synaptic connections by simultaneous activation.
  • No single area of brain controls learning.
  • Learning affects brain too (reciprocal relationship) – E.g. reducing activity of frontal lobe creating automatic responses. – Physical changes.
  • Consolidation = Helps improve skills without practice, perhaps during sleep.
  • Stimulation from environment increases brain weight, dendrites, neurotransmitters and synapses = better subsequent learning
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