MANICURE

Manicure revision cards

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  • Created by: Elly Pike
  • Created on: 15-11-13 17:21

MANICURE PRODUCT INGREDIENTS

ENAMEL
Film former: Nitrocellulose, resins
Solvent: Butyl acetate, ethyl acetate
Plasticiser: Isopropyl myristate
COSHH: nitrocellulose highly flammable 

BASE COAT
Higher % nitrocellulose
Fewer plasticisers than enamel (gives harder coat)
COSHH: nitrocellulose highly flammable 

TOP COAT
Higher % nitrocellulose and plasticisers
Less resin than enamel
COSHH: nitrocellulose highly flammable 

RIDGE FILLER
All of above, plus fibres to thicken the product
COSHH: nitrocellulose highly flammable 

ENAMEL REMOVER
Acetone etyhl
Butyl acetate
Glycerol (humectant)
Mineral oils
COSHH: highly flammable

CUTICLE REMOVER
2.5% solution of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide
Glycerine
COSHH: caustic substance - alkali

CUTICLE CREAM
Oil in water mixture
May contain beeswax, cocoa butter, lanolin, liquid paraffin

BUFFING PASTE
Talc
Kaolin stannic oxide

HARDENERS/STRENGTHENERS
Aluminium potassium sulphate
Formaldehyde
Resins
COSHH: potential sensitizer

ENAMEL QUICK DRY SPRAY
Alcohol
Silicone
Mineral oils
Natural oils
COSHH: flammable 

WHITE PENCIL
Titanium dioxide
Soft white paraffin 

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MANICURE TROLLEY SET UP

Clean trolley with surgical spirit
Line shelves with bed roll

  • hand sanitiser
  • enamel remover
  • exfoliator
  • buffing paste
  • cuticle massage cream
  • cuticle remover
  • hand mask
  • hand lotion
  • base coat
  • enamel
  • top coat
  • barbicide
  • heated mitts
  • cling film
  • towel mitts to remove exfoliator
  • big bowl of warm water to remove exfoliator
  • manicure bowl with warm water
  • cotton wool in small bowl
  • small bowl lined with tissue for client's jewellery
  • emery board
  • buffer
  • orange stick
  • hoof stick
  • cuticle knife
  • cuticle nippers
  • spatula
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DISINFECTION AND STERILISATION

DISINFECTION
Orange stick, hoof stick, buffer, manicure bowl and emery board can be disinfected by washing in hot soapy water then placing in a UV cabinet. The manicure bowl can be washed in hot soapy water and wiped/sprayed with disinfectant. Emery boards can also be wiped/sprayed, or a new one can be used for each client and given to the client to take home.

STERILISATION
Any tools which come into contact with blood need to be sterilised. Cuticle nippers and knife should be pre-washed then sterilised in autoclave or chemical sterilising solution.

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CONSULTATION AIMS

  • determine the client's current skin/nail care routine
  • determine client's treatment objectives
  • formulate treatment plan
  • provide correct after care advice for the client
  • select correct and suitable products for the client
  • determine client's skin and nail type
  • check for contra-indications
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FILING TECHNIQUE

The file should always be held at a 45 degree angle to the nail.

Never use a 'sawing' action going backwards and forwards - file in one direction from one side to the centre in one full sweeping movement

A metal file should never be used - encourages the nail to peel and split

The coarse side is used for re-shaping the nail and reducing nail length

The fine side is used if there is not much shaping to do, and for smoothing and bevelling the nail

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BUFFING EFFECTS/REASONS

Effects/reasons:

  • Increases localised blood circulation
  • Increases lymphatic circulation
  • Increases mitotic-cellular growth
  • Gives the nail plate a healthy pink flow colour by increasing blood supply to the area
  • Gives lustre/sheen to the nail plate
  • Smoothes surface ridges
  • Can be used instead of enamel e.g. for male clients or for clients who cannot wear enamel for work
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NAIL DISORDERS/DISEASES

BEAU'S LINES
Transverse ridges, superficial or deep
Caused by ill health or medication 

FURROWS
Also known as ridges/corrugations
Horizontal or vertical
Caused by age, ill health, injurt or trauma 

SPLINTER HAEMORRHAGE
Tiny streaks of blood running lengthways up the nail plate
Caused by trauma to the nail plate 

ECZEMA OF THE NAIL
Pitting, spliter haemorrhage, horizontal ridges, onycholysis, paronychia
Systemic 

PSORIASIS OF THE NAIL
Splinter haemorrhage, excessive curvate of nail plate, thickening of nail plate, discolouration, beau's lines, pitting
Systemic 

HABIT TIC
Nail of forefinger picks and rubs over nail of thumb
Stress/nervous disposition related 

HANGNAIL
Split cuticle
Caused by biting or picking 

CORRUGATIONS
Ridges
Caused by age, ill health, injury or trauma 

LEUCONYCHIA
White spots on nail plate
Caused by trauma, injurt or mineral deficiency

KOILONYCHIA
Spoon shaped nail
Systemic 

ONYCHATROPHIA
Nail gets smaller

ONYCHAUXIS
Thickening of nail

ONYCHOPHAGY
Bitten nails
Can be caused by stress or nervous disposition 

ONYCHOLYSIS
Nail plate leaving nail bed
Caused by trauma or eczema

ONYCHORRHEXIS
Brittle, split, dehydrated nail
Caused by oveuse of chemicals or trauma

ONYCHOCRYPTOSIS
Ingrowing nail
Caused by cutting the nail too short or not cutting it straight across 

ONYCHOGRYPHOSIS
Increased curving of nail

ONYCHOMYCOSIS/TINEA UNGUIUM
Ring worm
Green/yellow, can smell, brittle, onycholysis, and in severe cases black patches
Bacterial infection that leads to fungal infection 

ONYCHOPTOSIS
Periodic shedding 

ONYCHOPHYMA
Swelling of nail 

ONYCHOSIS/ONYCHIA
Nail disease 

PARONYCHIA
Inflammed, swollen cuticle
Redness, swelling, pus
Bacterial infection common in those who bite or pick the nail and surrounding area

PTERYGIUM
Excessive forward growth of the cuticle - thick cuticle sticking to nail plate 

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STRUCTURE OF NAIL

MANTLE
Part of epidermis lying over the matrix, protects the matrix from physical damage

MATRIX
Growing/reproducing area of nail, polygonal shaped cells divide by mitosis, forming new nail plate, has an extensive blood supply

CUTICLE
Overlapping epidermis at base of nail, protects matrix from infection

EPONYCHIUM
Extension of cuticle at base of nail where nail plate leaves matrix, protects nail plate from infection

PERIONYCHIUM
Cuticle at sides of nail

NAIL WALL
Cushions of skin at sides of nail, hold nail in place and protect nail from damage

GROOVE
Found between nail plate and wall, act as railway lines for growth of nail

NAIL BED
Living part of nail underneath nail plate, has corrugations to hold nail plate in place, rich blood supply, supplies nourishment

NAIL PLATE
Protects living nail bed underneath, 3 scaly layers of dead, nerveless cells, translucent appearance 

FREE EDGE
Protects fingertip and hyponychium, white in colour as there is no nail bed underneath

HYPONYCHIUM
Part of epidermins under free edge, protects nail bed from infection

LUNULA
Found at base of nail over matrix, lighter in colour than rest of nail, has no function 

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MUSCLE MOVEMENT

Anterior - front
Posterior - back
Medial - middle, midline of body
Lateral - side
Flexsion - reduce angle between two bones
Extension - increase angle between two bones
Abduction - take away from midline of body
Adduction - move towards midline of body
Pronate - palm facing down
Supinate - palm facing up
Dorsiflex - point toes upwards
Plantarflex - point toes downwards
Rotation - move about an axis (180 degrees)
Circumduction - circular movement (360 degrees)
Invert - towards midline
Evert - awat from midline 

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BONES OF ARM

Humerus
Ulna (longer bone in lower arm (little finger side))
Radius (shorter bone in lower arm (thumb side))
Carpals:
hamate, capitate, trapezium, trapezoid, lunate, pisiform, triquetral, scaphoid
Metacarpals - 5
Phalanges - 14 (distal, medial, proximal)

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MUSCLES OF ARM

Brachioradialis - flexes forearm at elbow

Palmaris longus - flexes hand at wrist

Flexor carpi ulnaris - flexes and adducts hand at wrist

Flexor carpi radialis - flexes and abducts wrist

Thenar eminence - movement of thumb

Hypothenar eminence - movement of little finger

Flexor digitorum - flexes fingers

Flexor digitorum tendons - flex fingers

Extensor digitorum - extends fingers

Extensor digitorum tendons - turns palm down

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VEINS AND ARTERIES OF ARM

VEINS
Basilic vein
Cephalic vein
Median vein
Ulnar vein
Radial vein

ARTERIES
Brachial artery
Ulnar artery
Radial artery
Superficial palmar arch
Digital arteries 

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LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Lymph is a clear, watery fluid
The lymphatic system is maintained by suction and pressure, which is why massage can be so beneficial

ARM: axillary nodes, supratrochlear nodes and lymph vessels

Lymph:

  • reduces oedema
  • contains fibrogen to help prevent blood clotting
  • transports fats from small intestine to the liver where they are broken down
  • returns blood protein molecules which are unable to pass through capillary walls due to their large size
  • produces lymphocytes which help fight infection

Lymph nodes (made of tissue):

  • act as a filter to trap bacteria
  • produce anti-bodies and anti-toxins
  • produce lymphocytes 

After lymph has been filtered through the lymph nodes, it is passed through the lymph vessels to the lymphatic ducts.

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PARAFFIN WAX TREATMENT

HEALTH AND SAFETY

  • follow manufacturer's instructions
  • check client for allergies
  • check client for contraindications (any skin disorder/disease, metal plates/pins)
  • test temperature on self and client
  • protect client's clothing
  • test equipment to ensure it is in good working order

GENERAL

- turn on before beginning the treatment - takes around 30 minutes to melt
- should be arund 45-50 degrees centigrade
- leave on for around 15 minutes
- dispose of wax in COSHH bin to prevent cross-infection
- apply after cuticle work and before massage 

EFFECTS/BENEFITS

  • increases blood and lymph circulation
  • stimulates cell reproduction
  • stimulates desquamation
  • opens pores
  • increases skin temperature
  • increases sebaceous gland activity
  • increases activity of sudoriferous glands - leaves skin deep cleansed and softened
  • increases absorption of hand lotion
  • warmth soothes joints
  • improves skin tone/colour due to increased circulation
  • improves skin texture due to increased absorption of lotion and increased activity of sebaceous glands
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STRUCTURE OF THE EPIDERMIS

STRATUM CORNEUM

  • 25-30 cells deep
  • surface layer
  • flattened, irregular, dead, keratinised cells
  • protective waterproof barrier - prevents excessive dehydration of tissues 

STRATUM LUCIDUM

  • 4 cells deep
  • flattened, closely packed cells
  • cells have an indistinct outline and no nucleus
  • more pronounced on thick, hairless skin such as the palms of hands and soles of feet

STRATUM GRANULOSUM

  • 1-3 cells deep
  • flattened, spindle shaped cells
  • nucleus begins to break down here and granules of keratin appear
  • forms the main part of all horny tissue

STRATUM SPINOSUM

  • 8 cells deep
  • cells are rounded with a nucleus, and vary in size and shape
  • cells produce fibrils which interconnect them with neighbouring cells

STRATUM GERMINATIVUM

  • 1 cell deep
  • cells are rounded, well defined and have a nucles
  • cells rest on papillae of dermis
  • these epithelial cells reproduce themselves via mitosos - when new cells are produced, older ones are pushed up towards the surface
  • this layer is most productive between midnight and 4am
  • melanocytes are found in the germinativum - these produce melanin, giving skin it's colour. Melanocytes react to UV light, and protect the skin fro, sun exposure (sun tan)
  • Lanerghan cells are found here which absorb and remove foreign bodies that enter the skin
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STRUCTURE OF THE DERMIS

  • Thickest part of skin
  • Sometimes referred to as 'true skin'
  • Bathed in water
  • Composed of areolar connective tissue
  • Has a papillary and reticular layer
  • Contains: collagen, elastin fibres, fibroplasts, macrophages, mast cells, enzyme, nerve endings, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, blood and lymph vessels, arrector pili muscles, hair follicles, appendages

PAPILLARY LAYER

  • Directly underneath stratum germinativum
  • Nourished the epidermis
  • Contains cone shaped projections called papillae, which contain looped blood capillaries, nerve endings and tactile corpuscles

RETICULAR LAYER

  • Thickest of the two layers
  • Contains macrophages, which produce yellow elastin fibres - these make up 4% of connective tissue and give the skin it's flexibility and ability to recoil
  • White collagen fibres make up 75% of connective tissue and give skin it's strength
  • Macrophages destroy bacteria and tissue debris
  • Mast cells secrete histamine, which enlarges small blood vessels, and heparin, an anti-coagulant which helps prevent blood clotting
  • Contains nerve endings
  • Reticular fibres run between dermal fibres and structures to help support them and hold them in place
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SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER

  • deepest layer of the skin
  • made up of adipose tissue (fat)
  • performs skin's functions of feeding, heat regulation and extretion
  • acts as a shock absorber, protecting the underlying tissues
  • provides energy
  • heat insulator
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FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN

Sensation

Heat regulation

Absorption

Protection

Excretion

Secretion

Production of vitamin D

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BENEFITS OF EXFOLIATION

  • unblocks pores
  • aids desquamation
  • increases lymph flow
  • increases blood flow
  • softens skin tissues
  • removes skin stains
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BENEFITS OF HAND MASK

  • anti-aging
  • hydrating
  • tightening
  • toning
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THERMAL MITTS

BENEFITS

  • improves skin condition
  • relaxing
  • soothes joints
  • increased absorption of produces for an intensive, hydrating treatment

HEALTH AND SAFETY

  • yearly checks by a qualified electrician
  • unplug and switch off after use
  • do not use if faulty or damaged
  • do not fold
  • do not use without a liner
  • do not leave client unattended whilst using the mitts
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NAIL TYPES

NORMAL

  • healthy pink colour
  • lunulas visible on most nails
  • strong
  • usually flexible
  • free edge is quite white
  • smooth - no ridges
  • no blemishes
  • cuticles in good condition

DRY

  • dull appearance
  • dragging feeling to touch
  • dry cuticles
  • peel and break easily
  • superficial ridges
  • flaky free edge

DEHYDRATED

  • dull appearance
  • discoloured
  • dragging feeling to touch
  • peel and break easily
  • superficial ridges
  • nail plate if often thicker

BRITTLE

  • very hard
  • inflexible
  • nail plate often thicker
  • can curve as they grow longer
  • break and crack straight across

DAMAGED

  • soft
  • weak
  • thin nail plate
  • sensitive to touch
  • frayed free edge
  • dented nail plate
  • slow growth
  • peel and break easily 
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