management strategies to protect the carbon cycle

  • Created by: beaw18
  • Created on: 06-05-19 12:16

wetland restoration

  • inludes freshwater marshes, salt marshes, peatlands, mangroves and floodplains - ground near watertable and permenantly saturated
  • wetlands contain 35% of terrestrial carbon pools 
  • wetalnds reduced by urbanisation - climate change threats has lead to restoration programmes to restore natural carbon sinks 
  • management initiatives: International Convention on Wetlands, European Union Habitats Directive 
  • restoration programmes include raising water tables to create water-logged conditions  
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afforestation

  • planting trees in deforested areas, or areas never before forested, as trees are carbon sinks
  • trees absorb carbon, reduce flood risks and soil erosion 
  • UN's Reducing Emissions from Defforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) scheme helps developing countries to preserve their forests by placing monetary value on forest conservation 
  • China - government sponsored afforestation projects since 1978
  • modern examples include rise of apps/web browsers such as Forest and Ecosia who's profits made from ad space plant trees in deforested regions 
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agricultural practices

  • overcultivation and overgrazing are poor farming practices which result in soil erosion and releases large quantities of carbon 
  • intensive livestock farming (often of animals such as cows) produces 100 million tonnes of methane a year 
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international agreements to reduce carbon emission

  • Kyoto Protocol (1997) - richer nations legally bound to reduce CO2 emissions 
    • controversy as China and India (two of the biggest carbon producers) were exempt 
    • USA and Australia also dropped out 
  • treaty expired in 2012
  • Paris Agreement (2015) - aims to reduced CO2 emissions below 60% of 2010 levels by 2050, and keep global warming below 2 degrees
    • countries set own non-legally binding targets 
    • countries signed up in April 2016
    • Trump announced in 2017 that the US would drop out of the agreement, bad news as the US are one of biggest contributors 
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cap and trade

  • international market based approach to limit CO2 emissions 
  • businesses allocated annual quota for CO2 emissions 
  • if they emit less than quota, they recieve carbon credits which can be traded on international markets 
  • businesses exceeding quota must purchase credits from other businesses or have finacial penalties 
  • carbon offsets rewarded to companies for afforestation schemes, renewable energy and wetland restoration 
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