Management Stratergies to protect the water cycle

  • Created by: EmilyM17
  • Created on: 20-05-19 21:03
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  • Global management strategies to protect the water cycle
    • Forestry techniques
      • United Nations (UN) and the World Bank (WB) have come together with other organisations and governments to fund programmes to protect the tropical rainforests
        • UN's REDD programme
        • WB's Forestry Carbon Partnership Facility
          • Fund over 50 partner countries in Africa, Asia-Pacific and South America
            • UN's REDD programme
            • Financial incentives to protect and restore forests are a combination of carbon offsets and direct funding
      • EXAMPLE
        • Brazil
          • Areas included in programme are strictly protected.
            • Benefits= stabilising the regional water cycle, supporting indigenous forest communities, promoting ecotourism
    • Water allocations for domestic, industrial and agricultural use
      • In countries of water scarcity governments have to decide where water should be allocated
        • Agriculture is the biggest consumer. Globally is accounts for 70% of water withdrawals and 90% of consumption
          • Wastage of water occurs through evaporation and seepage through inefficient water management (e.g. over irrigating crops).
            • Improved management techniques which minimise water losses:
              • Mulching
              • Zero soil disturbance
              • Drip irrigation
            • Losses to run off on slopes minimised:
              • Terracing slopes
              • Contour ploughing
              • Insertion of vegetation strips
          • Better water harvesting, with storage in ponds and reservoirs, provides farmers with extra water resources
          • Recovery and recycling of water from agriculture is feasible but is little used outside the developed world
    • Drainage basin planning
      • Surface stores
        • Surface water storage is improved by conserving and restoring wetlands, including temporary storage on floodplains
      • Run-off
        • Rapid run-of is controlled by:
          • Reforestation programmes in upland catchments
          • Reducing artificial drainage
          • Extending permeable surfaces (e.g. gardens, green roods) in urban areas
      • EXAMPLE
        • England and Wales
          • Drainage basin management is well advanced. The plan sets water targets in relation to water quality, abstraction rates, groundwater levels, flood control, floodplain development and the status of habitats and wildlife
      • Management most effective at this scale, it is feasible to adopt an integrated and holistic approach to accommodate the conflicting demands of different water users

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