Global Management Strategies to Protect the Carbon Cycle - ELSS

  • Created by: zoemort
  • Created on: 23-09-19 16:08
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  • Global Management Strategies to Protect the Carbon Cycle
    • Wetland Restoration
      • Restoring: Freshwater marshes, Salt marshes, Peat lands, Flood plains and Mangroves
      • Increasing the water table to at or near the ground surface causing the ground to be permanently saturated and recreating the water-logged conditions
      • Wetlands occupy 6-9% of the Earths land surface and contain 35% of the terrestrial carbon pool
      • The increase in population has placed significant pressure on wetlands
        • The lower 48 US states wetlands have halved since 1600
          • Led to: loss of biodiversity and CO2 & CH4 being released into the atmosphere
      • Large carbon sink absorbing 3.25 tonnes carbon/ hectare/ year
      • Examples
        • Canada's Prairie Provinces
          • Lost 70% of wetland in 20th century (1901-2000)
          • 112,000 hectares are targeted for restoration
          • Will eventually sequester 364,000 tonnes carbon/year
        • EU habitats directive
          • UK has a target of restoring 500 ha of wetlands by 2020
            • In Cambridge, 400 ha of land is being converted back to wetlands
          • In Cambridge, 400 ha of land is being converted back to wetlands
        • The lower 48 US states wetlands have halved since 1600
          • Led to: loss of biodiversity and CO2 & CH4 being released into the atmosphere
      • Removal of embankments will enable land to be connected to a river creating a wetland
        • Increasing the water table to at or near the ground surface causing the ground to be permanently saturated and recreating the water-logged conditions
      • Breaching of sea defences can restore wetlands, particularly marshland
        • Elsewhere, diverting or blocking the drainage and flow of water can maintain the water table at artificially  high levels
      • Agricultural Practices
        • Over cultivation, over grazing and excessive intensification leads to soil erosion
        • Large amounts of CO2 are released into the atmosphere
        • Methods to improve agriculture practice
          • Live stock management
            • Better quality animal feed
              • Less CH4 released
              • mix methane (CH4) inhibitors with livestock feed
                • Less CH4 released
          • Manure management
            • Control decomposition to reduce CH4
            • Anaerobic digestion
              • Source of renewable energy
              • Less fossil fuels needed to produce energy
                • less CO2 emitted into the atmosphere which protects the carbon cycle and reduces effects of climate change
                  • Source of renewable energy
          • Land & crop management
            • Zero tillage - growing crops without ploughing the soil
              • Organic content is preserved
              • Oxidation is reduced
              • Aeolian & water erosion is reduced
            • Poly culture - growing annual crops with interspersed treea
              • Year round cover
                • Photosynthesis removing CO2 constantly
              • Soil is protected from erosion
                • Less CO2 in released to the atmosphere reducing and managing carbon
                  • Photosynthesis removing CO2 constantly
                • Year round cover
              • Crop residues - leaving stems and leaves etc after harvesting
                • Provides ground cover which protects soils from wrosion and drying out --> reduces CO2 in atmopshere
              • Minimising/not using heavy machinery eg tractors
                • Compacts soils leading to run off and soil erosion
              • Contour ploughing & terracing on slopes
                • Reduces run off and erosion
              • Growing new rice strains in drier conditions
                • Less CH4 produces
              • Apply CH4 inhibiting chemicals eg ammonium sulphate
                • Manages the amount of carbon released
              • Diversification
                • Different speies photosynthesis and store different amounts of carbon
              • Rotational cropping
                • Reduces the amount of organic content removed from soil
              • Dark soils
                • Replicate natural soild
                • of carbon in fast cycleStore f
        • Afforestation
          • The planting of trees in a deforested area or somewhere which hasn't yet been forest
          • Reduces atmospheric CO2 in the medium-long term
          • Risk of flood and soil erosion is also reduced whilst biodiversity is increased
            • However could become a mono-culture as little variation in species are planted so cannot replicate the exact biodiversity of a rain forest
              • This then leads to photosynthesis (absorption of carbon) not being maximised as different species photosynthesis and store different amounts of carbon
          • Loggers, especially those who are illegal contradict this method
            • Also hard to monitor
          • Examples
            • REDD
              • Monetary value placed on forests and the conservation of them
                • In particularly for developing countries where the resources could be seen to be used more efficiently
              • Occurs in the Amazon Rainforest
            • China's government sponsored afforestation project
              • 1978- Aim to plant  400,000km2 by 2050 (size of Spain)
              • 2000-2009 - 30,000km2 of forestation occured
              • A wider purpose of combating desertification and land degradation in northern China
              • Fast growing species
                • Birch
                  • -- as not a native tree species
        • International Agreements
          • Cooperation between countries to reduce the level of greenhouse gasses which are emitted
          • Kyoto protocol (1997-2012)
            • Rich Counties  (ACs) agreed to reduce CO2 emissions
            • Developing countires were exempt
              • India
              • China
            • USA & Australia refused to ratify agreement
          • Paris climate convention (2015)
            • To be implemented in 2020
            • To reduce global CO2 emissions to below 60% of 2010 levels by 2050
            • Aims to keeps global warming below 2oC
            • ACs will provide developing countrieswith the funds and technologies needed to help reach their targets
            • China & India argue:
              • Using fossil fuels is essential for their development to raise their living standards to a similar levels of ACs
              • Europe and N.America are to blame for global warming and climate change sue to their industrialisation and economic development in which fossil fuels were used
                • However, India & China are now doing the same which will cause further problems and issues
                  • ACs will provide developing countrieswith the funds and technologies needed to help reach their targets
        • Cap and Trade (pollution permits)
          • A carbon quota for each county which is divided among businesses.
          • The maximum level of carbon which can be emitted
          • If carbon emitted level is below quota, carbon credits are issued which can be traded (sold for financial gain)
          • If quota is exceeded and carbon credits aren't purchased from another firm, a financial penalty is issued
          • Carbon offsets are issued to countries who implement other carbon management strategies

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