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  • Amazon
    • Carbon cycle
      • stores
        • 60% of carbon is stored in above ground biomass- 100 billion tonnes of carbon in rainforest
        • below ground biomass- soil and roots
        • carbon sink- stores 2.4 billion tonnes of carbon a year
      • flows
        • 40% of man made co2 is absorbed by rain forest
        • releases 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon a year through decomposition
      • human factors affecting the carbon cycle
        • deforestation reduces input of organic material into soil. soils depleted by carbon and exposed to sunlight support fewer decomposer organisms- reduces flow of carbon between soils and atmosphere
        • deforestation destroys nutrient supply- trees, so soils have limited nutrients and without protective cover of trees they are eroded by run off.
        • cutting down of trees releases carbon into the atmosphere which is sped up by slash and burn- also reduces stores in biomass by 50%
    • water cycle
      • inputs
        • rainfall
        • moisture from Atlantic ocean 8-10g
      • outputs
        • evapotranspiration- high rates due to high temps, half of incoming rainfall is returned to atmosphere
        • rapid run off is related to rapid rainfall
        • vegetation transpires moisture
      • human factors affecting stores and flows
        • since 1970 1/5 of forest has been destroyed
        • deforestation has reduced water storage in trees, soils, permeable rock
        • more and faster run off has increased raisin flood risks in basin
        • impact of deforestation on water cycles regionally. 20% decline in regional rainfall as forest trees are gradually replaced by grassland.
        • change climate in area- converting rain forest to grass land increases run off by a factor of 27, half of rain falling on grassland goes into rivers. trees extract moisture from soil and releases into atmosphere- stabilising forest albedo and ground temps.
    • strategies to manage tropical rain forests
      • Brazil is committed to restoring 120,000km2 of rainforest by 2030
      • protection through legislation of large expanses of primary forest not affected by commercial developments
        • 2015- 44% of Brazilian amazon was national park s
      • projects to restore degraded or destroyed areas from farming, cattle ranching, logging and mining
        • REDD+ scheme- pays tribes to protect rain forest and abandon logging.
        • indigenous Surui people joined scheme that aims to protect primary forests from illegal logging and reforest degraded areas- planted seedlings in deforested areas around their village- provides timber, crops and logging for a sustainable source of income
          • protection through legislation of large expanses of primary forest not affected by commercial developments
            • 2015- 44% of Brazilian amazon was national park s
      • improving agricultural techniques to make permanent cultivation possible
        • low fertility rates in the soil so permanent cultivation is unsustainable so farmers move to other plots of land-rotating life stock and farming would increase ranching productivity and help slow rates of deforestation
        • human engineered soils, charcoal and human waste to attract micro organisms and allows soil to retain fertility - this would allow intensive and permanent cultivation which would drastically reduce deforestation and carbon emissions


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