- was the Emporer of germany and King of Prussia.
- Full control over foreign and diplomatic policy.
- He could appoint and dismiss Chancellor at any time.
- He had to oversee the implemenatation of federal law.
- He could dissolve the Reichstag and was the guardian of the constitution.
- and Government Ministers were below him, and he was directly responsible to the Kaiser. He can ignore resolutions past by the Reichstag.
- Chancellor had powers to manipulate both Kaiser and Reichstag.
- He had to stirke deals fast and manage politicans.
- German Reich contained 25 states and four kingdoms and Alsace-Lorraine which had been seized from France.
- Each state had own governements and different constitutions which had wide ranging powers.
- Domestic Affairs were in the hands of the state gov not federal gov.
- Upper house of federal parliament.
- Part of law making process and could change the constitution.
- It was to act as a barrier for radical legislation.
- Voters put into three bands; upper, middle and lower.
- Army had huge impact on the new state, as the army had lead to the new states formation die to victories on battlefields in previsious years.
- Bismark did not make army accountable to the Reichstag. It was only resposible to the Kaiser who...
- Appointed the Military Cabnet which chose General Staff which organised military affairs. Army swore an oath the to Kaiser and not to the state.
- Officers were class slpit; little had respect for democracy as a result.
- Civil servants that helped to develop policies.
- Implemented new laws and arranged events and made policy decisions.
Kaiser Wilhelm 2
- Belived it was his power to rule and not share power witht he Reichstag.
- He was a poor decision maker and did not work hard. His only interest was the military which he turned to for advice.
- He had a poor opinion of democracy in the Reichstag.
- Concstitution creastes a political structure which was not clear and was fragmented and dominated by conservative elites.
- There was much domanance and veto of Prussia.
- Main aim of the author of the new constitution and Germanys first Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, was to preserve power of the elite.
1871 - Prince Otto von Bismarck, 1890 - Georg Leo von Caprivi, 1904 - Prince Chlodwig zu Schillingsfurst, 1900 - Bernhard won Bulow, 1909 - Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg.