Teachers judge students by the "IDEAL PUPIL"
Ideal pupil is judged by work, behaviour and appearence. This is more commonly found in middle class school children.
CICOUREL & KITSUSE
Students supposedley judged on their behaviour and work effort.
Found that this was not the case. Usually judged on appearence, class and race, therefore middle class were more desirable.
Ability was lesser valued in comparison to appearence. Due to this the middle class were seen as brighter and were granted with better opportunities whilst the working class were given more playtime and easier workbooks.
SHARP & GREENE
Working class were seen as having lower abilities as a result of an inequal soceity.
high & low status knowledge
GILLBORN & YOUDELL
Working class and black students kept at the bottom by enforcing less and less valued exams.
Studied teachers & schools. Students seperated by teachers into "high" and "low" status knowledge. Working class seen as "low status".
self fufilling prophecy
"a prediction that comes true because it has been made"
1. Teacher labels a child e.g disruptive
2. Due to this label the teacher treats the child differently accordingly.
3. Pupil ends up behaving to this label as a result of the expectations put upon them.
STREAMING - seperation due to ability
DOUGLAS - children in higher streams have a better self image and a higher IQ and visa versa for lower streams.
"when schools sell themselves to the consumers"
FUNDING FORMULA - schools are given money for each individual student.
EXAM LEAGUE TABLES - schools are ranked due to their results.
-CREAM SKIMMING: best students = cost less to teach!
-SILT SHIFTING: weaker students offloaded onto weaker schools
"where schools choose their pupils"
A TO C ECONOMY - due to the image of the "ideal pupil", often the working class and black students are less desirable as they are stereotyped not to produce the best results terefore will not benefit the school.
GILLBORN & YOUDELL
schools sort the best students