Morpheme - The smallest unit of meaning.
Syntax - The study of grammatical relationships between words in sentences.
Denotations - The literal meaning of words.
Synonyms - Different words with nearly the same meaning.
Antonym - Words that are opposite in meaning.
Hyponym - The relationships between words in which the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another.
Pragmatics - Implied meanings, particular meanings dependant on the context.
Phonology - The sound features of language.
Discourse - Any spoken or wrriten language which is longer than a sentence.
Grammar & Syntax
Complex Sentence - A sentence having two or more clauses with subordinating connectives.
Subject - A noun phrase or pronoun which is usually the actor of the verb.
Imperative - Commands, describes the structure as well as function and start with the verb.
Object - Something directly affected by the verb.
Compelement - Gives extra information about the subject.
Adverbial - Gives information about time, manner and place.
Active Sentence - Where the subject of the sentence is clear.
Passive Sentence - Where the subject of the sentence is not stated or included at the end.
Adverb - Words used to describe or modify verbs.
Preposition - Words which convey a sense of the position of two objects or clauses.
Subordinating Connectives - Connectives create subordinate clauses/complex sentences.
Coordinating Connectives - Joining two equal clauses and create compound sentences.
Definite and Indefinite Article - "The" and "A".
Fronting - The movement of a clause element.
Inversion - Reversing the order of clause elements.
Proper Nouns - People and places.
Abstract Nouns - Conveys ideas, emotions or thoughts, rather than concrete objects.
Concrete Nouns - Names for objects.
Idiolect - Each individual has a specific way of using language.
Sociolect - A language variety due to any sort of social group.
Dialect - Accent, lexis and grammar to a specific region.
Adjacency Pair - Two speech turns by different speakers that are consecutive and related to each other.
Co-operative Overlap - Speaking at the same time as another person to reinforce their speech.
Quotative - Words used in place of "said".
Utterance - A stretch of speech, one persons turn.
Elision - Missing out parts of certain words.
Ellipsis - Missing out whole words from sentence.
Hedges - Vague terms to reduce imposing on others, opposite to an imperative to still wants to achieve the same function.
Prosody - Describes the phonology or sounds of speech, including the rythm and intonation.
Tag Question - A statement followed by a question.
Filler - Lexis that maintains the speakers turn while they decide what to say next.
Paralingustic Features - Features that are not based on language, such as facial expressions.
Transactional Language - Language that has an aim to actually convey information and get something done.
Convergence - Where speakers adopt the language patterns of another speaker.
Discourse Marker - Lexis typical of a particular discourse type used for signposting the text, creating cohesion and helping the audience to follow the text.