As Theories and Theorists

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  • As Theories and Theorists
    • Presenting self
      • Speech act theory
        • Austin and Searle (1970) Language is a comunication act bwteen a speaker and a listener to carry infomation or to be preformative. It looks at the message sent, the content and intended affect. For this to be successful, it must follow the felicity conditions:Authority, correctness and sincerity.
      • Difference theory (Language and Gender)
        • Tannen (1990)- described male and femal conversation-al styles in terms of difference. i.e. Men are care about status, independen-ce, direct orders, facts and conflict. Women care about forming bonds, avoiding conflict, politeness, and compromise.
      • Politeness theory
        • Brown & Levinson Posed the theory that people use positive politeness with friends (ie Are you serious? or Id rather die [Emiting negatives]) but negative politeness to emphisise respect if there is a social difference between speakers (Uses indirect and hedged phrases such as 'would you mind')
          • Also suggests the idea of a positive and negative face where PF is the need to be liked and NF is the need not to be opposed upon (A public self image)
            • Face and Footing (Language and Power)
              • Goffman (1955) Positive face- being friendly, open and sociable  Negative face- Being closed off, uninviting and un-sociable. Also suggested the idea that there is a 'footing' in all conversations that can change throughout.
      • Dominance theory (Language and Gender)
        • Lakoff (1975)- Identified features that she thought were typical of Womens language i.e. hedges and fillers (Kind of, sort of), Apologetic requests and modal auxiliaries (Im sorry, but would you mind...), Tag questions (This is nice, isnt it?) and indirect requests (Its very noisy out there [could you close the door])
        • Zimmerman and West (1975)- Foung that 96% of interuptions were made by men suggesting they are dominant in male-female chats and could reflect the male dominance in society.
        • Nohara (1990)- Goes AGAINST Zimmerman and West. Suggests that women actually interrupt more to show their dominance and to gain footing.
        • Jesperson (1922) Thought male speech was typical for the development of new words, not female.
      • Face and Footing (Language and Power)
        • Goffman (1955) Positive face- being friendly, open and sociable  Negative face- Being closed off, uninviting and un-sociable. Also suggested the idea that there is a 'footing' in all conversations that can change throughout.
      • Convergence and divergence
        • Giles Convergence- Speech is adjusted to match others to show unity. Divergence- Speech is adjusted to distinguish from others to emphasis status or separation.
      • Grice's Maxims
        • Quality- Be truthful when speaking. Manner-Speak in a clear and orderly way. Quantity- Do not say too much or too little. Relevance- Keep to the point.
      • Lexis, Discourse, Semantica, Morphology, Graphology, Grammar
        • QUESTION 4!
          • Usually a 'Which group does this belong to?' question an will need to talk about the features and 5 key constituents
    • Language and Context
      • Language and occupation
        • Jargon can be used to gain status or to soften the meaning of a word.
        • Jargon, euphemisms, language related to the job, technical language, the specific words used change over time (They go in and out of fashion)
      • QUESTION 2!
        • Mode, Field, Function, Tenor, Formality scales
          • http://corpus. wikispaces.co m/register
        • http://corpus. wikispaces.co m/register
      • QUESTION 3!
        • Comparing two texts and their features/ techniques (The old Tenor question)
        • Lexis, Discourse, Semantica, Morphology, Graphology, Grammar
          • QUESTION 4!
            • Usually a 'Which group does this belong to?' question an will need to talk about the features and 5 key constituents
      • Language and technology
        • Electronic texts are usually 'creative', informal, and exhibit features of spoken language.
        • Phonic spellings, incomplete clauses, no punctuation, simple sentences, emoticons, symbols for words, acronyms, numbers to represent words and phonemes
      • Ways of making new words
        • Acronyms- Radar (radio detection and ranging
        • Affixation- adding prefixes or suffixes to existing words
        • Compounding- combining separate words
        • Clipping- a shortened word (ie telephone to phone)
        • Blending- Parts of two words are combined (Globish)
        • Conversion- An existing word changes its grammatical function (Ie noun [the text] to verb [to text])
      • Spoken language
        • Features include: Fillers, ellipsis, phatic talk, false starts, back-channeling, deictic expressions, elision, hedging, tag questions, pauses, discourse markers and interuptions
      • Written language
        • Features include: high formality, planned, standard grammar and english, usually written with a purpose, converges to the correct audience, semantic fields, can vary depending on the genre, function, field, and tenor.
  • Language and technology
    • Electronic texts are usually 'creative', informal, and exhibit features of spoken language.
    • Phonic spellings, incomplete clauses, no punctuation, simple sentences, emoticons, symbols for words, acronyms, numbers to represent words and phonemes

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