Jewish Practices-GCSE AQA Revision

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  • Created by: Aleena
  • Created on: 12-12-16 17:44

Synagogues

Definition: A house of assembly, where Jews meet for prayer,worship & study.

Outside of a Synagoue:

  • usually rectangular
  • most have stained glass windows
  • all have Star of David symbol

Important for Jews because...

  • Centre of Jewish Community                                                                                                                                             
  • Social  Centre
  • Place for Prayer & Study
  • Focal Point of Jewish Festivals/Rites
  • Place of Charitable Work
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Inside a Synagogue

Inside a Synagogue...                                               The Ever-Burning Light (ner tamid):

  • Usually Rectangular                                               Shape of star of David                                                                                            Oil Lamps but now-Electricity 
  • 3 sides facing inwards towards Bimah                   Never unlit          
  • 4th side has the Holy Ark                                       In front/above Ark 
  • Seat for Rabbi,Pulpit(Sermons are delivered)       Symbolises God's Presence
  • Decorative Patterns
  • A seat for the Chazzan (singer)                            The Reading Platform (Bimah):                                                                                                                                                                    The Ark (Aron Hakodesh):                                   Raised Platform
  • Holiest place in synagogue                                    Torah is read from here
  • Where scared Torah scrolls are kept
  • Represents the Ark of the Covenant (original)
  • Front of Synagogue (facing Jerusalem)

 

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Orthodox & Reform Synagogues

Orthodox Synagogues:                                            Reform Synagogues:

  • Person leading service-back to congregation        Person leading service faces Congregation 
  • Services are in Hebrew & No Singing                    Services Hebrew & Own Language & Singing
  • Men/Women-sit separately                                    Everyone sits together          
  • Rabbis-all male                                                      Rabbis-Male/Female
  • People arrive late & catch up at own pace            Shorter services & Set Time
  • Services longer than Reform                                 Most men + Some women -Kippah
  • Men cover heads with Kippah                               No daily services- just celebrates      
  • Married women-scarf/hat                                      Shabbat/Festivals
  • Hold daily services & Shabbat/Festivals
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Prayer-Why is it Important to Jews?

The Amidah- Standing Prayer/18 Blessings

  • Weekdays- centre of all Jewish Prayers
  • Prayed in Ssilence,whilst standing + facing Jerusalem
  • First 3 blessings-Praise God
  • Middle 13 blessings-request God's Help
  • Final 3 blessings- Thank God

Teffilin: Black Boxes with Leather Straps

  • Strapped onto several parts of the body
  • Worn during morning services- apart from Shabbat/Festivals

Tallit:Large rectangular Shawl made from wool,cotton/sythentic fabrics

  • Contains strands-Tzitzit
  • Tzitzit-Black/Blue
  • Worn to fulfill Biblical Precept
  • Worn during morning services
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Sabbath

Shabbat: A Jewish Holy Day of the week-a day of spiritual renewal

  • Friday Sunset- Saturday Sunset

Special to Jews because

  • They can relax and it's a gift from God
  • Time to worship God
  • Reminder of Covanent between God & Jewish People

Getting Ready for Shabbat...

  • Do all the cooking, cleaning & shopping in advance(such work is prohibted on Shabbat)

During Shabbat...

  • Synagogue holds Friday evening/Ssaturday Morning service (45mins)
  • On Sat Morning, Curtains of Ark opened-reveals Torah
  • Congregation stand
  • Symbolises when Israelites standing bottom of Mt.Sinai,when Moses returned with 10 C's
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Shabbat-At Home

  • Husband attends the Synagogue Service
  • Then, blesses his family & Sing hyms to Angels

Friday Evening:

  • Eat a meal- best food of the week/central feature for family
  • Food is heated specifically & husband blesses food-wine drunk-wash hands
  • Then 2 loaves of Challot cut & sprinkled with salt & shared

Saturday Evening- Havadalah:

  • Special Plaited Candle lit & Spice Box passed round
  • Wine is blessed and it marks end of Shabbat & Beginning of Week
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Worship-At Home

Mezuah: a small box that contains a hand-written scroll of verses from the Torah

  • Fixed to a doorpost
  • reminder to Jews the words of the Shema& to live the day in a way that shows you're loving God with all your heart, soul & strength.
  • a Sofer writes the verses in the Mezuzah
  • Slighlty tilted & points to the room
  • Shows a sign of God's protection on the family
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Tenakh & Talmud

Tenakh:

  • consists of 24 books (old testament in Christianity)
  • Grouped in 3 main parts
  • The word Tenakh is formed from taking the 1st of Hebrew names for each of these 3 parts:
  • Torah-bases of Jewish Law
  • Nevi'im-expanded laws
  • Ketuvim- 11 books-poetry,stories, advice, historical accounts,etc.

Talmud:

  • Oral Law
  • For early Jews, teachings for how to interpret the Torah & apply it's rules to life
  • pased from generation to generation by word/mouth
  • Danger that teachings to be alterted so Rabbi Hanassi brought all the laws together in 1 document-The MISHNAH
  • This caused debate so dicussions were written down-Gemara
  • Mishnah + Germara = Talmud
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Rituals- The 4 Rites of Passage

An event which may have some significance,which often occurs more than once, like a tradition.

Family: For Jews,family life is v.important

where Jewish faith is preserved & passed onto the next generation

certain events in life of the family are celebrated with religious events/Rites of Passage

Because...they involve moving from one phase of life to another

4 Rites of Passage:

1) Birth-naming-Cicumcision-Redemption of 1st Born son

2) Coming of Age-Bar Mitzvah/Bat Mitzvah

3) Marriage-The Betrothal-The wedding

4) Death-Mourning-The Funeral

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1st Rite of Passage-Birth

Naming:

  • Boys-named at Circumcision & Girls about a month after birth by Father,formally
  • Both Boys & Girls are blessed 1st Shabbat after birth

Brit Milah (Circumcision):

  • Removal of the foreskin from penis for religous reasons
  • important for Jews-recalls covenant between God & Abraham + life long membership with God

Redemption of 1st born Son (Pidyon Ha-Ben):

  • Orthodox give small amount of money 31 days after birth
  • To redeem him from temple service
  • 5 silver coins given to Kohen
  • Prayers said that the child may enter into Torah+Marriage+Good Deeds
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2nd Rite of Passage- Coming of Age

  • Bar Mitzvah-Boys-means Son of Commandment-when you're 13 yrs old
  • Bat Mitszvah-Girls-means Daughter of Commandment-when you're 12 yrs old
  • Usually first Shabbat after 12th/13th Birthday
  • May attend preparation classes
  • Boys wear tallit for the 1st time
  • May lead a prayer in the service/read from Torah/make a speech(at start)
  • Father thanks God for bringing son to maturity
  • Then you can have a celebratory meal/gifts
  • For Reform Jews, Girls' Bat Mitzvah is celebrated with the same importance as a Boys'
  • but Orthodox do a small family meal + maybe some gifts
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3rd Rite of Passage- Marriage

There are two steps to a Jewish Marriage...

The Betrothal: Means 'made holy' or 'set aside'

  • Legal Status in Jewish Law- can't be broken unless by Divorce/Death
  • Traditionally year bfr Wedding
  • During this year,couples won't live together
  • You have to sign a contract, called, Ketubah

The Wedding:

  • Takes place in Synagogue/Elswhere (not on Shabbat/Festivals)
  • Led by Rabbi & held under a Chuppah(Canopy-symbolises Couples' Home)
  • The bride circles the groom
  • recite blessings over wine
  • Groom places Ring on bride
  • Rabbi Recites 7 blessings & a short speech
  • Groom breaks a glass-shos destruction of Temple,Jerusalem(hardship in joy)
  • Then,a merry wedding reception afterwards!!!
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4th Rite of Passage- Death

  • When a Jew is dying, their family members visit them-so they won't die alone.
  • The dying person tries to make final confession & recites Shema,if able
  • After the death, close family tear clothes
  • The Funeral happens quickly as possible...
  • most Jews are buried usually within 1 day
  • Bfr Burial someone stays with body
  • Then, its washed carefully & wrapped in Linen + tallit for men
  • A corner of Tallit-removed-toshow it will no longer be used in this life
  • Body is placed in a simple coffin-to show-all are equal in death
  • Doesn't take place in a synagogue since its a place for the living
  • No flowers because they are a sign of life
  • A service is held (20mins)
  • Coffin is lowered and family members take turns to shovel dirt onto the grave
  • Offer Condolences & Wash Hands
  • A tombstone is placed-Jewish Law so person is remembered
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What can Jews eat?

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Rosh Hashanah-Jewish New Year

Festival celebrated to mark the start of Jewish New Year (2 days)

10 Days beginning with Rosh Hashanah then ends with Yom Kippur/Days of 'Awe'

  • A time Jews think seriously about their lives,then ask God for forgiveness for their sins & make decisions for the new year
  • R.H isn't always celebrated in Jan because -Leviticus 23:24 (see Key Quotes Booklet)
  • Origins:The anniversary of the day God created Humans + Universe
  • Blowing of Ram's Horn- announce Day of Jugement
  • Buy Fruit you've not eaten for a while and have lots of good food
  •  Till Yom Kippur...
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Yom Kippur

Holiest + Most Important Day of the Jewish Year

Because it is a day of atonement for sins + when God seals the Book of Judgement

Jews expected to amend relationship with people the 10 days before Yom Kippur

Celebrated in Britian...

  • no work
  • no makeup/perfume
  • wear white-purity symbol
  • Jews fast for 25 hours
  • most time in Synagogue
  • General confession of sins-as a community not individually
  • During Final service,Ark opens-last chance for repentance

Service ends with blessing

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Yom Kippur

Holiest + Most Important Day of the Jewish Year

Because it is a day of atonement for sins + when God seals the Book of Judgement

Jews expected to amend relationship with people the 10 days before Yom Kippur

Celebrated in Britian...

  • no work
  • no makeup/perfume
  • wear white-purity symbol
  • Jews fast for 25 hours
  • most time in Synagogue
  • General confession of sins-as a community not individually
  • During Final service,Ark opens-last chance for repentance

Service ends with blessing

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Yom Kippur

Holiest + Most Important Day of the Jewish Year

Because it is a day of atonement for sins + when God seals the Book of Judgement

Jews expected to amend relationship with people the 10 days before Yom Kippur

Celebrated in Britian...

  • no work
  • no makeup/perfume
  • wear white-purity symbol
  • Jews fast for 25 hours
  • most time in Synagogue
  • General confession of sins-as a community not individually
  • During Final service,Ark opens-last chance for repentance

Service ends with blessing

18 of 20

Yom Kippur

Holiest + Most Important Day of the Jewish Year

Because it is a day of atonement for sins + when God seals the Book of Judgement

Jews expected to amend relationship with people the 10 days before Yom Kippur

Celebrated in Britian...

  • no work
  • no makeup/perfume
  • wear white-purity symbol
  • Jews fast for 25 hours
  • most time in Synagogue
  • General confession of sins-as a community not individually
  • During Final service,Ark opens-last chance for repentance

Service ends with blessing

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Yom Kippur

Holiest + Most Important Day of the Jewish Year

Because it is a day of atonement for sins + when God seals the Book of Judgement

Jews expected to amend relationship with people the 10 days before Yom Kippur

Celebrated in Britian...

  • no work
  • no makeup/perfume
  • wear white-purity symbol
  • Jews fast for 25 hours
  • most time in Synagogue
  • General confession of sins-as a community not individually
  • During Final service,Ark opens-last chance for repentance

Service ends with blessing

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nm15

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So useful, Thankyou! Need more Judaism resourses!!!

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