James and Charles: Foreign Policy 1604-25

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James' Policies and plans

POLICIES

1604 TREATY OF LONDON:

  • Abandoned Protestant Dutch, made peace with Spain.
  • Allowed English and Spanish to trade.
  • Upset many Puritans.
  • Still had good relations with Protestant Europe.
  • 1612, Treaty of Mutual assisstance, a Protest union.
  • 1612, Got his daughter married to Protestant, Fredrick Elector of Palatine.
  • Wanted Catholic Spanish match for Charles.

WHY HE WANTED A SPANISH MATCH, INFANTA MARIA FOR CHALRLES:

  • Money, prestige and peace.
  • Restore the Palatinate via Habsburg family.
  • Marriage and Foreign policy were his Royal Prerogative, Parliament had no say
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KEY INDIVIDUALS:

BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS:

  • War with the Howard and Carr factions.
  • James and Charles favourate.
  • Parliament attacked his supporters via impeaching for monopolies.
  • Used the King to get what he wanted.

WALTER RALEIGH:

  • A sailor for England, a pirate in Spain and raided ships.
  • Planned to kidnap James for Catholics.
  • James needed him in 1614 for cash and sent him to south America.
  • He told him not to upset Spanish coloni es but he failed.
  • Came back and was imprisoned.

COURT FACTIONS

  • Howards, Pro-Catholic.
  • Abbott, Anti-Catholic.
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THE 30 YEAR WAR:

HOW IT STARTED:

  • Protestants in Bohemia rejected Catholic monarch Archduke Ferdinand for Fredrick Elector of Palatine. 
  • War triggered by defenstration of Prague, Catholic nobles thrown out of a window. 
  • Fredrick driven out of Bohemia in Palatinate by Catholics.
  • James had to back up his son in law but took a diplomatic approach.
  • James tried to avoid it.
  • Parliament couldn't interefere as Foreign policy was James royal prerogative.

1621 PARLIAMENT:

  • James wanted small war against Austrian Habsburgs,
  • French alliance would allow this.
  • Parliament wanted full scale anti Catholic war supported by Dutch.
  • War would be led by Buckingham and be expensive.
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PEACE/WAR

CHARLES AND BUCKINGHAM TRAVEL TO MADRID:

  • One last chance for peace.
  • Tried to win Spanish princess.
  • They were caught and Spain arrested them.
  • James tore up all agreements with Spain.
  • 1624 considers war.

WAR

  • Charles incharge as James is really ill.
  • French alliance made via Marriage for Charles with Catholic, Henrietta Maria.
  • Need France to get to Spain to start Mansfield expedition.
  • French authorites refused to let Mansfield march from France to Spain. 
  • Charles at war with Spain, Parliament wanted.
  • King was unfit to lead navy.
  • Failure of Cadiz and La Rochelle.
  • War with France too as they borrowed English ships to attack Protestants. 
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PARLIAMENT

MONARCH AND PARLIAMENT THREATENED:

  • John Elliot spoke to allow Parliament interfere on Foreign policy, a royal prerogative.
  • King couldn't arrest him, would abuse Parliamentary privilidge.
  • Parliament couldn't fund war.
  • 1627 used a Forced loan.
  • Wanted to attack French fortress.
  • Buckingham led attack on Eal Der Re, failed, 15ft Ladder too short.
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