James' Policies and plans
1604 TREATY OF LONDON:
- Abandoned Protestant Dutch, made peace with Spain.
- Allowed English and Spanish to trade.
- Upset many Puritans.
- Still had good relations with Protestant Europe.
- 1612, Treaty of Mutual assisstance, a Protest union.
- 1612, Got his daughter married to Protestant, Fredrick Elector of Palatine.
- Wanted Catholic Spanish match for Charles.
WHY HE WANTED A SPANISH MATCH, INFANTA MARIA FOR CHALRLES:
- Money, prestige and peace.
- Restore the Palatinate via Habsburg family.
- Marriage and Foreign policy were his Royal Prerogative, Parliament had no say
BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS:
- War with the Howard and Carr factions.
- James and Charles favourate.
- Parliament attacked his supporters via impeaching for monopolies.
- Used the King to get what he wanted.
- A sailor for England, a pirate in Spain and raided ships.
- Planned to kidnap James for Catholics.
- James needed him in 1614 for cash and sent him to south America.
- He told him not to upset Spanish coloni es but he failed.
- Came back and was imprisoned.
- Howards, Pro-Catholic.
- Abbott, Anti-Catholic.
THE 30 YEAR WAR:
HOW IT STARTED:
- Protestants in Bohemia rejected Catholic monarch Archduke Ferdinand for Fredrick Elector of Palatine.
- War triggered by defenstration of Prague, Catholic nobles thrown out of a window.
- Fredrick driven out of Bohemia in Palatinate by Catholics.
- James had to back up his son in law but took a diplomatic approach.
- James tried to avoid it.
- Parliament couldn't interefere as Foreign policy was James royal prerogative.
- James wanted small war against Austrian Habsburgs,
- French alliance would allow this.
- Parliament wanted full scale anti Catholic war supported by Dutch.
- War would be led by Buckingham and be expensive.
CHARLES AND BUCKINGHAM TRAVEL TO MADRID:
- One last chance for peace.
- Tried to win Spanish princess.
- They were caught and Spain arrested them.
- James tore up all agreements with Spain.
- 1624 considers war.
- Charles incharge as James is really ill.
- French alliance made via Marriage for Charles with Catholic, Henrietta Maria.
- Need France to get to Spain to start Mansfield expedition.
- French authorites refused to let Mansfield march from France to Spain.
- Charles at war with Spain, Parliament wanted.
- King was unfit to lead navy.
- Failure of Cadiz and La Rochelle.
- War with France too as they borrowed English ships to attack Protestants.
MONARCH AND PARLIAMENT THREATENED:
- John Elliot spoke to allow Parliament interfere on Foreign policy, a royal prerogative.
- King couldn't arrest him, would abuse Parliamentary privilidge.
- Parliament couldn't fund war.
- 1627 used a Forced loan.
- Wanted to attack French fortress.
- Buckingham led attack on Eal Der Re, failed, 15ft Ladder too short.