James I Foreign Policy, 1603-1625

The Foreign Policy of James I overview - AQA History AS level

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  • Created by: Clodagh
  • Created on: 07-05-13 10:28
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  • James I Foreign Policy, 1603-1625
    • Background
      • There was a struggle of the Protestant United Provinces (the Dutch) to break free from Spain
      • In 1618 Frederick accepted the throne of Bohemia
      • Protestants supported foreign policy but Catholics opposed it
      • The Commons refused to provide finance for war. This strained relations with James
    • Aims
      • Keep England out of major war by following a Protestant foreign policy
      • Secure a marriage alliance with the Spanish Hapsburgs
      • Make himself a mediator of Europe
    • Treaty of London, 1604
      • Both Spain and England wanted peace. England had been at war with Spain for 15 years when James became king
      • English merchants would have the right to trade in Spain
        • They would not be arrested as heretics by the Spanish Inquisition
      • James' focus was to secure his position over the next 5 years
    • European Affairs, 1604-1612
      • Europe was divided
        • Sweden, Denmark, United Provinces and England were Protestant
        • Spain and France were Catholic
      • Spain wished to gain control of the United Provinces again, despite a truce
      • Puritan gentry were wary of Spain, thinking they represented forces of the counter-reformation
        • They supported the Dutch rebels and wanted England to support Protestant states
      • James hoped to balance opposing forces to prevent European religious war
        • He pursued a policy of friendship with Spain from 1604
          • In 1608 he joined the Protestant Union of European states
      • In 1612 he married his daughter Elizabeth to a leading Protestant prince, Frederick of the Palatinate
      • Pressure was put on James after the death of Catholic ruler Julich Cleves in 1609 when two Protestants claimed his lands
        • He was pressured into supporting the Protestant union as it was the only state capable of leading Protestants into the anti-Hapsbury alliance
    • The Palatinate
      • Frederick was James' son-in-law. He had been forced into exile in Holland as the Palatinate was occupied by the Spanish
        • James tried to persuade Spain the return the Palatinate through the Spanish match to the Infanta
          • Negotiations failed with Parliament as they refused to vote large sums of money
        • James was reluctant to help Frederick as he had accepted the crown as King of Bohemia in 1618 against James' best wishes
      • In November 1620, after Frederick accepted the throne, he and Elizabeth moved to Prague. Ferdinand was no Emperor. They became known as the winter King and Queen because of their short reign
      • Phillip III had no desire to marry his daughter to Charles but it suited him to drag on negotiations
        • In 1618 the Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand was elected King of Bohemia
          • Frederick was offerd the crown in 1619
            • This would put Protestants in the majority
              • James didn't approve
    • The Spanish Match, 1623
      • In November 1623 James was reluctant to call Parliament for funds and wars and was too ill to oppose Charles
      • James wanted a prestigious match for his son. He didn't trust France so he turned to Spain
        • He wanted to become a peace-maker and so wanted to marry Charles to a Catholic
      • Sir Walter Raleigh, 1618
        • In 1617 he was released to search for gold, but a fight with the Spanish led to execution
        • The sentence of death had not been revoked
        • He had been kept in the tower since 1603 because of his involvement in a Catholic plot
      • Pursuing the Match & Foreign Policy
        • Philip became anxious that England might take up leadership of a Protestant coalition
          • In 1613 Count Gondomar was sent to London to win James away from the German and Dutch Protestants. He offered concessions over marriage terms
        • James wanted to be a peace maker, he needed Catholic support too
        • The Howard family, who had taken control of most major offices in 1614 were pro-Spanish
      • The Spanish Trip, 1623
        • This was supposed to be a demonstration of Charles' commitment to the Infanta
        • Charles had never met his bride-to-be before, the trip would hopefully secure their marriage
          • The Spanish assumed Charles would convert to Catholicism. They insisted on Catholic toleration, but James had never allowed Catholics to worship in public
            • The policy of mediation failed, a Spanish match could only be achieved on unacceptable terms
              • The treaty was only agreed in outline
                • Charles and Buckingham wanted war
                  • When they returned home in October 1623, people felt their prince had been restored



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