James and Charles: Parliament 1603-1629

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James and Parliament, early years.

  • James believed in Divine Right.
  • England was Parliamentary.
  • Royal Prerogative vs Parlia. Privilege.
  • Parliament rights included freedom of speech, arrest and management.
  • Buckinghamshire election and Shirley early symptoms of conflict.

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE ELECTION 1604:

  • Frances Goodwin as MP was dismissed via 2 summons of debt.
  • James replaced him with John Fortescue.
  • Many say Goodwin as Unoutlawed.
  • Commons wanted Goodwin back.
  • James hated that they let an outlaw sit as an MP.
  • King and Parliament dismissed both.

SHIRLEY CASE 1604:

  • MP Shirley arrested for debt. 
  • Parlia. Privilege, freedom from arrest abused,
  • Wanted Shirley to be freed.
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James and Parliament Problems.

  • Both Buckighamshire and Shirley case caused a Precedent, if interfered once, could do again.

OPPOSITION TO ANGLO-SCOTT UNION, 1605-1607 AND GREAT CONTRACT 1610:

  • Parliament opposed this.
  • Would remove Parlia. Privilege.
  • English were anit-Scottish.
  • Would have to replace Scottish law with English law.
  • Great Contract would result in financial independence.
  • Both sides withdrew.

1614 ADDLED PARLIAMENT:

  • Debt reached £680,000.
  • Parliament still hated Impositions, made King more independent.
  • Parliament agreed to Book of Rates though.
  • Nothing was agreed.
  • Royal interference still a problem.
  • Factions still argued.

 

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James and Parliament Problems 1621:

  • 1621, James needed supply for war.
  • Parliament offered £140,000.
  • Hated Monopolies, impeached King's favourates like Bacon.
  • Parliament debated Foreign policy, interfered in King's prerogative.
  • James angry, reminded them rights could be given/taken away by the King.
  • Led to Protestation.

PROTESTATION 1621:

  • Statement of Parliament's rights, said it was birth right.
  • No one can change them.
  • James tore out the page.
  • Parliament dissolved in anger.

PARLIAMENT 1624:

  • Charles and Buckingham pressured James to War after failure of Madrid trip.
  • Both debated Foreign policy and war.
  • Monopolies act restricted royal prerogative.
  • Mansfeld failure infuriated Parliament 
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Charles and Parliament 1625:

  • Concessions to Parliament were broken.
  • Restriction spending subsidy, impeaching cranfield, war at sea, and no religious agreement in marriage.

CHALLENGES TO CHARLES:

  • Was at war with Spain anf France.
  • Parliament against his Catholic wife.
  • Cadiz disaster led to Sir John Elliot wanted Parliament.
  • Charles was criticised.
  • Puritans grew in Parliament.
  • Parliament hated Buckingham, Charles' favourate.
  • Said money given to him would hurt England.
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Charles and Parliament Problems:

  • Charles continued Tunnage and Poundage.
  • Made MPs Sheriffs to stop them sitting in Parliament.
  • John Elliot were arrested.
  • Dissolved Parliament in June 1626 to stop Impeachment of Buckingham.
  • Put in a Martial law.

FORCED LOANS AND 5 KNIGHTS CASE 1627:

  • Forced tax on wealthy and never paid them back.
  • Thoe who refused were arrested.
  • Debated on whether King could raise money without Parliament.
  • 76 were arrested, even MPs.
  • 5 knights challenged their imprisonment via Hapeas Corpus.
  • Charles denied Rule of Law.
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Charles and Parliament Problems:

PETITION OF RIGHT 1628:

  • Charles provoked Constitutional crises.
  • Charles was running out of Forced loan and still at war.
  • Needed Parliament.
  • Parliament said no more forced loans, imprisonment with no trial, using lodgings for soldiers in civil households and using Martial law.
  • Avoided asking King to admit mistakes.
  • Provided a chance for reconciliation between King and Parliament.
  • Charles eventually agreed.
  • But in 1629, Buckingham was assassinated and they celebrated.

1629:

  • MPs feared they wouldn't have another chance to protest and kept Mr Speaker in his chair.
  • Charles dismissed Parliament but they refused.
  • Passed 3 resolutions against growth of Arminians, impose Tunnage and Poundage and those who paid it.
  • Dissolved Parliament saying they didn't understand him.
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