James and Parliament, early years.
- James believed in Divine Right.
- England was Parliamentary.
- Royal Prerogative vs Parlia. Privilege.
- Parliament rights included freedom of speech, arrest and management.
- Buckinghamshire election and Shirley early symptoms of conflict.
BUCKINGHAMSHIRE ELECTION 1604:
- Frances Goodwin as MP was dismissed via 2 summons of debt.
- James replaced him with John Fortescue.
- Many say Goodwin as Unoutlawed.
- Commons wanted Goodwin back.
- James hated that they let an outlaw sit as an MP.
- King and Parliament dismissed both.
SHIRLEY CASE 1604:
- MP Shirley arrested for debt.
- Parlia. Privilege, freedom from arrest abused,
- Wanted Shirley to be freed.
James and Parliament Problems.
- Both Buckighamshire and Shirley case caused a Precedent, if interfered once, could do again.
OPPOSITION TO ANGLO-SCOTT UNION, 1605-1607 AND GREAT CONTRACT 1610:
- Parliament opposed this.
- Would remove Parlia. Privilege.
- English were anit-Scottish.
- Would have to replace Scottish law with English law.
- Great Contract would result in financial independence.
- Both sides withdrew.
1614 ADDLED PARLIAMENT:
- Debt reached £680,000.
- Parliament still hated Impositions, made King more independent.
- Parliament agreed to Book of Rates though.
- Nothing was agreed.
- Royal interference still a problem.
- Factions still argued.
James and Parliament Problems 1621:
- 1621, James needed supply for war.
- Parliament offered £140,000.
- Hated Monopolies, impeached King's favourates like Bacon.
- Parliament debated Foreign policy, interfered in King's prerogative.
- James angry, reminded them rights could be given/taken away by the King.
- Led to Protestation.
- Statement of Parliament's rights, said it was birth right.
- No one can change them.
- James tore out the page.
- Parliament dissolved in anger.
- Charles and Buckingham pressured James to War after failure of Madrid trip.
- Both debated Foreign policy and war.
- Monopolies act restricted royal prerogative.
- Mansfeld failure infuriated Parliament
Charles and Parliament 1625:
- Concessions to Parliament were broken.
- Restriction spending subsidy, impeaching cranfield, war at sea, and no religious agreement in marriage.
CHALLENGES TO CHARLES:
- Was at war with Spain anf France.
- Parliament against his Catholic wife.
- Cadiz disaster led to Sir John Elliot wanted Parliament.
- Charles was criticised.
- Puritans grew in Parliament.
- Parliament hated Buckingham, Charles' favourate.
- Said money given to him would hurt England.
Charles and Parliament Problems:
- Charles continued Tunnage and Poundage.
- Made MPs Sheriffs to stop them sitting in Parliament.
- John Elliot were arrested.
- Dissolved Parliament in June 1626 to stop Impeachment of Buckingham.
- Put in a Martial law.
FORCED LOANS AND 5 KNIGHTS CASE 1627:
- Forced tax on wealthy and never paid them back.
- Thoe who refused were arrested.
- Debated on whether King could raise money without Parliament.
- 76 were arrested, even MPs.
- 5 knights challenged their imprisonment via Hapeas Corpus.
- Charles denied Rule of Law.
Charles and Parliament Problems:
PETITION OF RIGHT 1628:
- Charles provoked Constitutional crises.
- Charles was running out of Forced loan and still at war.
- Needed Parliament.
- Parliament said no more forced loans, imprisonment with no trial, using lodgings for soldiers in civil households and using Martial law.
- Avoided asking King to admit mistakes.
- Provided a chance for reconciliation between King and Parliament.
- Charles eventually agreed.
- But in 1629, Buckingham was assassinated and they celebrated.
- MPs feared they wouldn't have another chance to protest and kept Mr Speaker in his chair.
- Charles dismissed Parliament but they refused.
- Passed 3 resolutions against growth of Arminians, impose Tunnage and Poundage and those who paid it.
- Dissolved Parliament saying they didn't understand him.