Back Office Systems
1. Run all routine business administration processes.
2. Used by accounts package or tailor made database management software.
3. Record details of all sales made.
4. Record details of all purchases made.
5. Update stock detail.
6. Generate any necessary paper work.
Transaction Processing Systems
1. Process each transaction as it arises.
2. Order being taken.
3. Customer paying for goods.
4. Booking a flight or a holiday.
5. Payment to suppliers.
6. Employee being paid.
Workflow systems: DMS
1. Keeps track of electronically stored documents.
2. Used in organisations where there is less control over the form that data arrives for entry into an ICT system.
3. Car insurance claims would use this.
Workflow: " The scheduling of independent tasks using a manual or automatic system".
Work flow managment systems
1. Different people in an organisation are responsible for different procedures.
2. Work has to flow between different personnel
3.Provide automatic routing of documents to the personnel responsible for working on them.
4.The person responsible in a business cycle is given access to the information at the right time, when it is ready for processing.
5. Triggers are given to the managers when the work is overdue.
6. An advantage of this is that it is not dependent upon the manual flow of documents.
7.Automates work flow through the use of databases and networks to ensure that the work is completed at the correct pace and order.
8. Some DMS have a built in work flow managment module= WDMS
Systems for Collaborative Working
1. People work together on a task regardless of their location.
2. They use the latest communication methods and networks to pass work between people.
a. Video conferencing.
b. File Sharing.
Management Information System
The purpose of a MIS is to provide information to allow managers to make decisons in regards to their arrea in thee organisation and to ensure that they are good.
1. Internal and external data is converted into information.
a. This is communicated in an undertandable format so that managers at all levels can make informed decisions.
b. Management information has to be in an appropriate form to enable managers at all levels to make effecitve decisions when planning, directing anf controlling responsible areas.
2. They are a part of the routine information systems used by all staff.
3, They are designed with the needs of the managers in mind.
4. Managers do not understand thee role of information, to them having lost of correct information reduces the uncertainty when making decisions.
5. If there was not any uncertainty then there would be no need for information thus resulting in accurate predictions.
6. It is necessary to gain as much management information that is relevant.
7. Historically, the manager would request information from the data processing department or database manager and the system was unable to produce the information in the requested format.
8. These databases were inflexible when creating Ad hoc reports and okay with producing routine information from the organisations data processing activities.
9. Now databases are flexible and managers are trained so that they can extract the information that they require using a computer connected to the network.
10. Management information needs to be tailored to the needs of the managers who are responsible for specific jobs.
Customer Relationship Management System
1. Day to day relationship with customers.
2. Improve effectiveness of communication.
3. Allow organisation to understand customer value.
4. Analysis on customers past orders allows employess to advise them on products they may be interested in.
5. Expensive to fine new customers, CRMS helps to keep existing ones.
a. Increased sales: better timing due to anticipating when a customer is most likely to place an order based on their history of orders.
b. Customer needs are understood better.
c. Cross sell products: Highlighting or suggesting alternatives or enhancements.
d. Marketing targeteed customer needs.
Enterprise Information Systems
1. Supports all functions of a large organisation.
2. Neeeeds to be able to deal with large volumes of data and allow an organisation to intergrate and coordinate all business activities.
3. Seperation information systems are not needed, as it integrates all key business activities such as:
c. Human Resources.
Decision Support Systems
1. Supports deciision making processes for instance there may be three ways of making a busineess for profitable, all three may have different levels of risk and the system can help identify the best option.
2. Can be used to expredate figures to provide forecasts.
a. Applications of DSS:
I. Helping bank managers to make loan decisions: whether or not a person should be given a loan to expand their business given ttheir previosu credit history, outstanding commitments of profits.
II. Helping companies to decide if the market their products abroad:
- The system would gather information from the DSS and determine whether this is a good idea, it would also use information from external sources: competitors, market research to see if there is a demand for the products.
-The information will be collected and presented in an understandable format.