Russia entered the war, better prepared that Britain or France in the same situation. This was due to the economic progress made during the first two five year plans
Soviet economy favour that of the Nazi system, that was unable to produce the armaments on the scale needed to defeat Russia. The Soviet economy during war similar to FYP's
Early days of war- Stalin's new policy relocated industry to the east to stop it falling to the enemy
November 1941, 1523 factories taken apart and reassembled in Russia's east region
1942, 56% Russia's national income devoted to war- higher than Britain, Germany and America
Production of armaments nearly doubled 1941-4, even though some of its territory and industry were in German hands
Nazi preparing for war since 1933- but lacked direction. Seniors had a series of completed priorites hampering effective production for war
e.g. Hitler and Goering demanded high living standards should be kept to ensure support
Goering also made mistakes which hampered war production
e.g. chose not to mass produce aircrafts thus fewer than 1000 were produced every month
1945- Hitler believed the economy was 4 years behind
Russian Home Front
Victory due to effective mobilisation of Russian population on the home front
Russians 'fighting for homeland, not for communism'. Socialism would not motivate, turned to tradtional nationalism and Russian orthodox church
Stalin realised people had little reason to fight for soviet system, with the economy doing little to improve living standards and the Terror effecting many
Called people to defend the 'MOTHERLAND', naming the war the 'GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR'
Army soliders were encouraged to use nationalistic nicknames e.g. 'Fritz' & 'Hans' in reference to Germans, emphasis was put on foreign enemy not an ideological one
Patriotism stirred people, the war a story of endurance and resistance.
Russian Home Front Continued...
Citizens of Leningrad- endured 900 day siege, not surrendering even through a starving, exhausting and severe winter
For which they were awarded 'Hero City' by Stalin after the war
Russian Orthadox Church important part of Russian national identity
Reawaking patriotism- look to church for guidance. Communism hostile to church, yet with onset of war, Anti-religous propaganda ceased
Stalin gave Metropolitan Sergey, offical residence in Moscow, promising religious magazines no longer censored
He responded that Stalin was 'God's chosen leader'
414 churches were reopened during the final years of the war
Soldier- 'Words of Jesus more comforting in the face of death than works of Marxs, Lenin and Stalin combined.
Military Factors (German tactics)
Hitler's self confidence grew- but his abilty to guide the war was inadequate
Launching war aganist of Russia, whilst still fighting Britain- Over ambitious
Operation Barbarossa, launched later than anticipated
German army unable to reach Moscow before winter snow- unprepared in harsh conditions and Hitler made the decision to have a siege rather than taking Leningrad and Moscow
More overstretched German Army- Hitler unable to take the capital
Military Factors (Allied tactics)
End of 1941- informal alliance between Russia, Britain and the US as they faced a common enemy
Stalin protested Britain and America not doing enough to help Russian war effort. Demanding a British invasion of France to distract Nazi's from Russia, but Churchill saw this as unrealistic as he did not trust him. Britain and Russia signed treaty- May 1942- officially allies aganist Nazi's
Roosevelt naively believed Stalin could be trusted despite intelligence, felt he could work for 'a world of democracy and peace'
The Nazis were defeated dividing Hitler's attention and lessoning the threat to the Russian people. British bombers targeted German cities the German Air force couldn't concerntrate on Russia
Following D-Day, Britian and America opened 3rd front in France, Nazis could not withstand combined forces
Roosevelt's trust in Stalin meant he was prepared to offer Russia anything
'Lead Lease' scheme established to supply British with American resources to fight Nazis. In November 1941, it was extended to aid Russia
Only minor significance in terms of military support
Official Soviet figures-
10% tanks - Used by Red Army supplied by America
4% industrial goods- used during WW2 supplied by USA
Lead Lease Continued...
Red Army depened on American/Canadian Wheat and tinned goods
1943- 17% of calorie intake of Red Army supplied by US
End of war- 200 grams of US food was recieved to 12 million Red Army soldiers everyday
Dependent on American- Produced transport
1900/2000 trains used in WW2 were American
2/3 of that used by the Red Army was US 'jeeps'
Provided specialist products- aluminium and high quality steel
Due to superiority of that produced, supposedly promoting capitalist superiority- prasing foreign technology was criminalised in 1942