Civil War

Who were the counter revolutionary forces or Whites?
Wanted to return to tsarist/ provisional Government ways of ruling. Under Kornilov then Deniken then Kolchk- formed own Government in Siberia. 19,000 members. Southern Russia
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Why did the Allies send forces to aid the Whites?
to keep Russia in WW1. Western countries saw communism as a threat to their own stability- stayed on after the war to overthrow Lenin.
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Who were the Czech Legion?
created in 1917. POWs from Czech and Slovak origin who wanted to create their own state. 1918- 40,000 troops. Intended to be involved in war against Germany but came in conflict with Red forces
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What impact did the various nationalities have on the civil war?
Each wanted their own state.they fought for independence
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What caused a split with the Left Social revolutionaries?
Treaty of Brest- Litovsk. Left SRs launched an attack on Communists = Attempted assassination of Lenin. Assassination of German ambassador = tried to force German troops to intervene and overthrow communists
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What was Kolchak campaign in 1919?
Kolchak launched assault in the east. 30,000 foreign troops. April- advanced 200 miles, captured key cities. End of April- counter-attack- conscripted civilians to Red Army, persuaded Kolchaks forces to change sides. July- pushed back, lost many men
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What was Deniken's campaign in 1919?
Based in South- East Russia. Initially agreed to help Kolchaks campaign, march changed mind. Went to Donbass to fight Red Army. 1st had success- many Red Army troops deserted. But not enough troops to fight such a large front = failed
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What was Yudenlich's campaign in 1919?
Attack against communist controlled Petrograd October 1919. Needed more men- no foreign support, Finns refused to fight. Good start but Trotsky intervened- roused troops/ workers in Petrograd, rounded up retreating troops
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What did Lenin hope for when he invaded Poland?
hoped Polish workers would join red Army and have a revolution against their government
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Why was the Russo- Polish war the biggest communist defeat in the Civil war?
saw Russians as a foreign aggressor and fought them. in the Treaty if Riga Poland was given large part of Western Belorussia.
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Why did disunity of the opposition aid the Communist victory?
lack of clear central strategy, direction of war effort. Whites fought for different reasons- tsarism, provisional government= Hard to win over Russia people. Fought among themselves
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Why did geography aid the Communist victory?
Communist dominated heartland- 60 million Russians- industrial centres, rail network. Whites geographically dispersed- launched offensives a different times- defeat them one by one
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Why did organisational factors aid the Communist victory?
Communists- efficient, coordinated, maxims weapons production through war communism, conscripted people to factories, terror tactics to increase production. Grain requisitioning- fed cities
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WHy did the use of terror aid the Communist victory?
Cheka- political police force, terror tactics. e.g. peasants who resisted grain requisitioning were executed
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How did the Red Army aid the Communist victory?
5 million soldiers- many conscripted. lacked military experience =recruited ex officers of Tsarist armies- to ensure loyalty they held their families hostage. Police officers in all army units ensure orders followed and remained loyal.
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How did Trotsky aid the Communist victory?
He toured the Front in a train, checked up on units, delivered political speeches
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why did the Allies send forces to aid the Whites?

Back

to keep Russia in WW1. Western countries saw communism as a threat to their own stability- stayed on after the war to overthrow Lenin.

Card 3

Front

Who were the Czech Legion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What impact did the various nationalities have on the civil war?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What caused a split with the Left Social revolutionaries?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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