How secure was the USSR's control over Eastern Europe 1948-1989?

Communism

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  • Created on: 04-06-12 10:33

Joseph Stalin

Dictator of Russia and USSR 1924-1953

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Cominform 2

-Organisation setup to control countries under  Russias control.

-Members would spy on these countries, and threaten them to make sure they were following orders

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Comecon 3

-Organisation setup to make sure economy os each country was doing as it was told

-Included making sure Eastern European countries didn't  trade with western countries

-Also made sure Russia got alot of money

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Eastern European Communist controlled countries 7

-Poland

-Czechoslovakia

-East Germany

-Hungary

-Romania

-Bulgaria

-Yugoslavia

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De-stalinisation 3

-Getting rid of stalins ideas

-After he died, Nikita Krushchev tried to reduce amount of control Russia had on eastern european countries

Countries in eastern europe started to think they would get more freedom

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The Warsaw Pact 1955 2

-Krushchev made sure the armies of each eastern european country would support eachother if invaded

-This was started by Russia

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Hungarian Uprising 1956 2

-Huge student demonstration pulling down statue of Stalin in Budapest

-New forms of government were created

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Imre Nagy 2

-Took over as respected leader of Hungary

-Wanted free election and allowed private ownership by land

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Russia's response to Hungarian Uprising? 5

-Soviet Tanks

-2 weeks of fighting

-30,000 hungarians killed

-200,000 hungarians travelled to other countries

-Imre Nagy and other hungarian leaders were put into prison and then executed

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Prague Spring 1968 4

-Led by fairer leader Alexander Dubcek

-He wanted more freedoms in Czechoslovakia and less russian control

-He was supported by intellectuals

-It lasted a number of weeks and there was lots of new and exciting ideas

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Russia's response to Prague Spring? 6

-Russia didn't want Czechoslovakia changing

-Carried out military training exercises on border of Czechy

-They tried to bargain with Dubcek

-20th August 1968 the Soviets sent in tanks

-There was little resistance

-Dubcek removed from power

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The Brezhnev Doctrine 2

-Named after Russian leader Leonardd Brezhnev who sent troops to Czechy

-He was afraid of more rebellions so he created rule where no country could leave Warsaw Pact or would be attacked

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The Berlin Wall 1961-1989

-Berlin had been split into East (Communist) and West(Capitalist

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Reasons why Berlin Wall was built 6

-Krushchev didn't like no. of east germans travelling to West

-Didn't like them watching western tv

-Those who moved west were highly skilled workers who Communists wanted

-East Germans fleeing gave communists bad image

-Krushchev wanted to challenge US Pressy JFK and got into argument over Berlin

-On 13th august 1961, German soldier put up fence seperating East and West and closed off all routes (except for Checkpoint Charlie)

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Why did War nearly start between America and Russi

-Tanks were fully loaded and aiming at eachother either side of wall at Checkpoint Charlie

-After 18 hours negotiations started and tanks retreated

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What did wall symbolise 4

-Seperation of east and west germany/berlin

-Showed division between capitalism and communism

-Communists saw it as protection from west

-The west saw it as prison

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Solidarity 2

-Name given to polish trade union and became powerful force to stop communist ideas in Poland in he '80s

-Gained 9.4 million members in 1981

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Lech Welsea

Leader of Solidarity

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What solidarity wanted 3

-Trade union demanded 21 changes

-Included allowing trade unions to exist

-And being able to change Communist laws

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Gdansk Shipyard 2

-August 1980: where members of solidarity went on strike and refused to work until 21 changes were achieved

-The polish communist government eventually gave in

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Why would a communist agree to Solidaritys demands

-Communists needed workers to go back because industry was important to economy

-Communist government didn't they were much threats

-Lech Walesa was a clever and careful negotiator truseted by commies

-Solidarity had strong support from Catholic church in poland. Commies wouldnt challenge this strong force in poland

-Commies hoped solidarity would break up

-Solidarity was very popular in capitalist countries and commies didn't want to look bad in western media

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General Jaruzelski 2

-Took leadership polish commie gov. in 1981 and introduced law stopping solidarity

-He put Lech walesa in prison along with 10,000 other leaders

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Why did Jaruzeski do this? 4

-Solidarity was not just a trade union but was acting as political party that wasnt commie

-Poland was chaotic with poor wages, poverty and strikes

-Solidarity itself was starting to break up and divide with no-one in charge

-Soviet Union had seen enough and wanted control

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Mikhail Gorbachev 2

-1985-1991 was leader of soviet union

-He was awarded nobel peace prize in his role for fall of communism

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Glasnost 3

-Means 'openness'

-Gorbachev allowed more media freedom so people could see reality of living under communism

-Also he was more honest with countries in west

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Perestroika 2

-He allowed economy to be 're-structured' so for first time in 60 years people could buy and sell for profit without giving to gov.

-Private ownership allowed again

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The Red Army

-For first time in 60 years spending on army was reduced

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The Arms Race 2

-After long competition with USA, the USSR finally lost arms race

-They reduced spending on weapons which was draining economy

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The Space Race 2

-Soviet Union also had to give in this race because USA had sent first man on moon

-Russia had spent too much money on it

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Afghanistan 2

-Gorbachev removed army from Afghan after bloody 10 year

-10,000 men died

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Causes of the collapse of Communism 7

-Eastern european uprisings

-Fall of Berlin wall

-Afghanistan

-Mikhail gorbachevs actions

-Poverty

-New media technology

-Power of solidarity

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How did gorbachevs actions cause the collapse 8

-Ended war in afghanistan

-Perestroika

-Glasnost

-More liberal(some say weaker)

-Finally allowed breaking down of berlin wall

-Reduced spending on arms race

-Reduced spending on space race

-Allowed greater democracy

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