How does the Social and Cultural Structure of Settlements vary?

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Sub-Urbanisation

The outward growth of towns and cities: 

Push From the Inner City:

Social

Old High density housing with no or small gardens

Fear for safety of family

Economic

Declining job opportunities 

Environmental

Lack of Recreational space 

Air Pollution and noise pollution 

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Factors influencing social and cultural patterns o

Distinctive social and cultural groupings are often found in suburbs of towns and cities. 

Ghettoisation refers to the processes thatmay result in one group dominating a suburb or area of a city. 

Processes leading to this include: 

- Family Life cycle 

- Filtering

- Gentification 

- Studentification 

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Filtering

This process often affects suburbs as they become older, more run down and unpopular with residents. 

People who have the ability to move out do so, leaving behind an increasing socially deprived population. 

This leads to a spiralling problem of decline in the area. 

Case Study: Ladywood, Birmingham 

81% of families in finacecial trouble or poverty 

Highest rate of unemployment (Over 25%) 

In 2009 25.2% of all vilolent crime in Birmingham occured in Ladywood 

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Why filtering has occurred?

Groups in Ladywood - 

People in poverty or low class socially depreived families 

Unemployed youthful trapped in cheap unattractive housing. 

How Ladywood has changed? 

From 2001 to 2011 

Goring number of minority ethic groups 

Single parents has doubled 

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Gentrification

The process in which affluent middle class people move into and renovate run down 'often cheap' housing in an inner city or urban neglected area. 

Case Study: Harborne, Birmingham 

Types of groups now in Harborne

High middle class, High employment 

Only 2.5% unemployed 

77% in proffessionaljobs meaning higher class and wages. 

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Impacts of Gentrification

Why Harborne has become gentrified? 

2 Key reasons: 

- Types of Housing (Victorian and Edwardian properties) 

- Access to employment 

Nearby to Birmingham 

Easily commutable to CBD or city employment. 

Impacts of Gentrification on services - 

Higher class of services 

More middle class services such as restaurants and coffee shops. 

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Studentification

Areas of cities wihin walking distances of a University often have an above average concentratin of students living in them. 

Case Studies: Selly Oak, Birmingham 

Shelton, Stoke-on-Trent 

Types of housing: 

Terrace housing, no gardens and small roads 

In 2011 Seely Oak had over 82.4% youthful population. 

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Impacts of Studentification

Services around these areas: 

Laundrette 

Stduent Property shops 

Cheap Uni Shops 

Takeaways 

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Issues of Studentification

Postive: 

Social

More Jobs 

Policing Increased 

Economic -

Landlords ccash in on demand for accomendation 

Pubs and Clubs in city thrive 

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Issues of Studentification - Negative

Social

Anti social behaviour 

Families leave area 

Can be trouble in the area

Economic

Lowers house values in area 

No permeant housing of residents 

Environmental

Litter and Rubbish 

Decline in housing and area quality 

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Sub-Urbanisation

Pull of the city surburbs 

Social

New low density modren housing 

Safer neighbourhoods with better schools 

Economic

Jobs created in new edge of town 

Retail and Industrail parks growing 

Environmental

More Pleasant, quieter and clearer environment 

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