The outward growth of towns and cities:
Push From the Inner City:
Old High density housing with no or small gardens
Fear for safety of family
Declining job opportunities
Lack of Recreational space
Air Pollution and noise pollution
Factors influencing social and cultural patterns o
Distinctive social and cultural groupings are often found in suburbs of towns and cities.
Ghettoisation refers to the processes thatmay result in one group dominating a suburb or area of a city.
Processes leading to this include:
- Family Life cycle
This process often affects suburbs as they become older, more run down and unpopular with residents.
People who have the ability to move out do so, leaving behind an increasing socially deprived population.
This leads to a spiralling problem of decline in the area.
Case Study: Ladywood, Birmingham
81% of families in finacecial trouble or poverty
Highest rate of unemployment (Over 25%)
In 2009 25.2% of all vilolent crime in Birmingham occured in Ladywood
Why filtering has occurred?
Groups in Ladywood -
People in poverty or low class socially depreived families
Unemployed youthful trapped in cheap unattractive housing.
How Ladywood has changed?
From 2001 to 2011
Goring number of minority ethic groups
Single parents has doubled
The process in which affluent middle class people move into and renovate run down 'often cheap' housing in an inner city or urban neglected area.
Case Study: Harborne, Birmingham
Types of groups now in Harborne
High middle class, High employment
Only 2.5% unemployed
77% in proffessionaljobs meaning higher class and wages.
Impacts of Gentrification
Why Harborne has become gentrified?
2 Key reasons:
- Types of Housing (Victorian and Edwardian properties)
- Access to employment
Nearby to Birmingham
Easily commutable to CBD or city employment.
Impacts of Gentrification on services -
Higher class of services
More middle class services such as restaurants and coffee shops.
Areas of cities wihin walking distances of a University often have an above average concentratin of students living in them.
Case Studies: Selly Oak, Birmingham
Types of housing:
Terrace housing, no gardens and small roads
In 2011 Seely Oak had over 82.4% youthful population.
Impacts of Studentification
Services around these areas:
Stduent Property shops
Cheap Uni Shops
Issues of Studentification
Landlords ccash in on demand for accomendation
Pubs and Clubs in city thrive
Issues of Studentification - Negative
Anti social behaviour
Families leave area
Can be trouble in the area
Lowers house values in area
No permeant housing of residents
Litter and Rubbish
Decline in housing and area quality
Pull of the city surburbs
New low density modren housing
Safer neighbourhoods with better schools
Jobs created in new edge of town
Retail and Industrail parks growing
More Pleasant, quieter and clearer environment