AQA Geog - Full Detailed Notes on Population

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  • Created on: 27-11-12 07:27
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GEOGRAPHY AS LEVEL REVISION NOTES:
Population Change
All Definitions:
Population structure: the breakdown of a country's population into groups defined by age and sex.
Death Rate: the number of deaths per thousand population per year, expressed as deaths per thousand
Age specific Death Rate: this shows death rates per thousand population by sex or age groups.
Birth Rate: the number of live births per thousand population per year, expressed as births per thousand
Infant Mortality: a measure of the number of infants dying under one year of age, expressed as the number of
deaths per thousand live births per year
Natural Increase/Decrease: the difference between the numbers of births and deaths for every hundred
people per year expressed as a percentage
HIV: human immunodeficiency virus, which attacks the immune system of people who are infected. Infection is
caused when body fluids from an infected person are passed into the body of another. This can happen
through unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, sharing needles, or from mother to baby during
birth.
Aids: acquired immune deficiency syndrome; a group of infections, including pneumonia, TB and skin cancers
that strike people whose immune system has been damaged by the HIV virus.
Dependency Ratio: shows how many young people (u-16) and older people (over 64) depend on people of
working age (16-64). Countries with a high dependency ratio have more people who are not of working age,
and fewer who are working and paying taxes. The higher the number the more people who need looking after.
Life Expectancy: the average age to which the population lives. It is expressed in terms of years. Male and
female figures are often given separately.
Optimum Population: the population at which the quality of life of the people of a country or a region is the
highest possible, at a given level of technological development.
Overpopulation: when any increase in population reduces the average quality of life in the population.
Famine: a time when there is so little food that many people starve.
Starvation: a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period.
Green belt: an area defined by Act of Parliament which surrounds a conurbation. It is very difficult to obtain
permission for development on green belt. This acts to stop the sprawl of conurbations.
Energy mix: the different sources of energy used by households, industry and commerce, and in the electricity
generation industry.
Social welfare: the well-being of communities. It refers to the access that groups of people, or individuals,
have to job opportunities, housing, health care, education, an unpolluted environment, a safe environment and
freedom to practice one's culture, religion, etc.
Underpopulation: when an increase in population could increase the average quality of life.
Genocide: the deliberate and systematic destruction or killing of an entire people who belong to one racial,
political, cultural or religious group.
Asylum: is `'the formal application by a refugee to reside in a country when they arrive in that country.''
Refugee: is `'someone who owing to fear of being persecuted is outside his/her country of nationality and is
unable or owing to such feat is unwilling to return to that country'' (UN 1951).
How has the rate of population growth changed over time?
Many of the increases in population are a result of development in technology such as:
o Development of crop growing rather than simple gathering.
o The invention of metal tools.
o Advances in plant breeding.
o Inventions of machinery that could be used in agriculture.
o Advances in medicine and hygiene.
o Development in the preservation and storage of food.
Social impacts on world population are that:

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There may be a higher amount of children in countries with social services, as the children are payed
for.
o However, they must go into education rather than employment and so are seen as less of an
investment.
o There are expectations of who will care for the parents once they reach old ages.
Education impacts on world population are that:
o Leads to children not being profitable for a number of years.…read more

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Public health acts in the mid and late 19th century led to improved water supply and the sewage
disposal systems in the towns.
o Through most of the 19th century, demand for labour in the factories and low wages for the workers
meant that it was an economic advantage to have a large family to add to household income.
o Compulsory education and factory reforms after 1870 made employment of children much more
difficult.
o In the 1870s Annie Besant published pamphlets advocating birth control.…read more

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Population Pyramids and the Demographic Transition Model:
Birth rates and death rates affect a countries population structure.
This can be shown with a population pyramid:
Short-hand
pyramids can be drawn for
each stage of the
transition.…read more

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Using Population Pyramids for predictions:
Represents a snapshot of a country's population at any one time.…read more

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Two unforeseen consequences of the policy were the practice of female infanticide and the abandonment of
baby girls.
Most reports of this were from rural areas where the sons would marry and bring their wives to live on the
parents' farm to support them in old age. In such a society, not having a son was an economic disaster. The
policy was therefore relaxed here.…read more

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People migrating to town looking for work and opportunities
o Natural growth. Birth rates were high, partly due to demand for labour.
o The area of London was growing rapidly after transport systems developed in 1840s
What Makes Cities Grow?
All urban population growth is caused by a combination of natural population growth and net migration ­ an
excess of inward migration.
People move to the city for numerous reasons:
o The hope of jobs.…read more

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A suburban area
o An area of rural/urban fringe
o An area of rural settlement
Migration Patterns:
Countries with highest emigration rates include; China, India, Mongolia, Indonesia, Mexico, Bangladesh, Turkey,
DR Congo and Kazakhstan
Countries with highest immigration rates include; North America, Canada, Russia, Australia, Argentina, UAE,
Chad, England, Japan, Central and Western Europe.
How has Migration changed over the last 30 Years?
There has been a decrease in the number of legal life-long migrants from LEDC's to MEDC's:
o Conditions in LEDC's are improving.…read more

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Montserrat is a small island in the Caribbean.
There is a volcanic area located in the south of the island, called Soufriere Hills.
The volcanic peak here is called Chances peak. It had been dormant over 300 years.
In 1995 the volcano began to give off warning signs of an eruption (small earthquakes and eruptions of dust
and ash).
Once it began erupting, Chances Peak remained active over five years.
The most intense eruptions occurred in 1997.…read more

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There were 19 million pedestrian crossings alone.
In 2000, 1.6 million immigrants were caught at the border.
Crossings can be prevented by:
Visa only entry.
Restriction by education, skills or language using a points system.
Dependence on family or marriage.
Physical restraints such as the Berlin wall (through force).
Increase of consequences if caught.
In USA-Mexico border:
o There is use of satellites and heat sensors etc.
o 9150 border control workers over a 3200km border.
o Operation hold the line at El-Paso.…read more

Comments

Mr A Gibson

These really are what they claim to be... everything you need for Population and some great case studies too.

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