Macro nutrients: protein, fat and protein (needed in large amounts).
Micro nutrients: vitamins, minerals and trace elements (needed in small amounts).
Enzymes: chemicals which cause foods to become rip or break down once harvested.
Preservatives: can be found naturally (eg. acids/fruit).
Diet: the food that you eat every day.
Special diets: diets used to reduce or increase something (eg. weight/ fibre intake).
Balanced diet: eating the right amounts of nutrients from a variety of foods every day for our particular needs.
important facts continued
Different people need different energy intakes through their life.
Metabolic rate: the rate at which chemical reactions take place inside the body.
Antioxidants: help protect the body from polluting chemicals that get into the body.
Protein: made up of amino acids.
High biological value (HBV): proteins containing all of the essential amino acids. Eg. milk, meat, fish, cheese, eggs, soya beans.
Low biological value (LBV): proteins that are missing one or more essential amino acids. Eg. Cereals, peas, beans (except soya beans), nuts and seeds.
Collagen: protein in meat, connective tissue which binds body cells together.
Caseinogen: protein in cheese.
Lactoglobulin: protein in milk.
Deficiency causes: growth stop, loss of fat and muscle, hair and skin become dry, hair thinning, digestive problems, diarrhoea, prone to infection, oedema (fluid under skin), becoming thin and weak.
Excess protein: stored as fat.
Triglyceride: chemical name for fat (one part fat and three part fatty acids).
Saturated fatty acids: single bonds (bad fats).
Unsaturated fatty acids + monounsaturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated fatty acids: double bonds.
Hydrogenation: process where hydrogen is added to a liquid fat to made a solid fat.
Adipose tissue: where fat is stored under the skin.
Cholesterol: fatty substance made in the liver from what we eat.
Uses: insulates the body, protects the body against physical damage and provides fat soluble vitamins.
Excess fat: gain weight and cause health problems.
Ways to reduce intake: choose lean cut meats, check labels for fat content, grill or oven bake rather than fry, add water instead of fat, choose low and reduced fat versions of food.
Deficiency causes: thinning, increase sensitivity to the cold, more prone to injury.
Made during: photosynthesis.
Two types: sugars and complex carbohydrates.
Sugars: simple sugars and double sugars.
Monosaccharides (simple sugars): fructose (found in fruits), glucose (found in vegetables and fruits) and galactose (found in milk).
Disaccahrides (double sugars): sucrose (found in sugar cane and sugar beet), lactose (found in milk), maltose (found in cereal plants).
Complex carbohydrates: polysaccharides
Starch (found in root vegetables), fibre (whole grain foods), pectin (some fruits), dextrin (toasted/bakes items), glycogen (made in the body).
Amount: Should form the main part of our meals every day and should supply most of the energy.
Excess carbohydrates: energy provided is stored as fat.
Deficiency causes: the body uses energy from other sources – fat and protein, due to this the body will lose weight. If there is still not enough protein from the muscles are broken down and used as energy. This makes the body weak.