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Population Patterns and Trends

  • Declining Fertility rates
  • Decinning Mortality rates
  • Migration into the UK
  • The Working-age Population
  • The role of Women in society
  • Advances in hygiene and medicine
  • Religious beliefs
  • Cultural expectations
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Implications for Society -

Implications for individuals

  • Increased life expectancy 
  • Greater need for health care
  • More people living alone
  • Increased retirement age
  • Increased ownership of goods and demand for services
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Implications for Society -

Implications for the family

  • Smaller families
  • Fewer primary schools
  • Changes to caring roles
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Implications for Society -

Implications for society

  • Increased demand and cost for social and health care
  • More dependency on the working population
  • Increadesed need for housing
  • Influence on culture
  • A shortage of young people
  • Greater mobility
  • Age of the workforce
  • Increased poverty
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What is a family? What is a household?

A family can be defined as a social unit connected by blood, marriage or adoption.

A household can be defined as one person living alone or a group of people who share the same address and living arrangements

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Functions of the family

  • Cultural identity
  • Socialise children
  • Reproduction of children
  • Housing
  • Access to services
  • Financial resources
  • Care, securiy and protection
  • Emotional needs for love
  • Values, beliefs and attitudes
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Structures of families and households

  • Nuclear family
  • Extended family
  • Reconstituted (step) family
  • Lone parent family
  • Gay and lesbin family
  • Single person household
  • Multiperson household
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Changes in household and family group composition

  • Changing nature of the extended family
  • Changing roles within the family
  • Smaller family size
  • Increase in childless women
  • Increase in older mothers
  • The changing divorce rate
  • More step families
  • More cohabitation
  • Increased births outside marriage
  • Increase in lone parent families
  • More non-dependent children living with parents
  • Civil partnerships
  • More one-person households
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Basic Human needs

  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  • The needs of household and family groups - Idenity and inclusivity, Structure and organsation, Safe affordable places to live, Employment opportunities, Access to services, Transport systems
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Standard of living - Factors affecting standard of

Standard of living is defined as a measure of the goods, services and luxuries available to an individual or household once the basic necessities are met

  • Financial resources available
  • The number of people
  • The number of dependents
  • The profession or occupation of individuals
  • The health of individuals
  • The geographical location
  • The amount of debt
  • The cost of housing
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Poverty is the state of being poor and lacking the means to provide material needs or comforts. It is a situation where resources are insufficient to meet individual needs.

Absolute poverty is a state below which it is not possible to live a healthy life, being unable to afford sufficient food, clothing, warmth and shelter.

Relative poverty is having resources below the average individual or family so that they are in effect excluded from what we would consider ordinary living patterns and activities.

The poverty trap is the idea that once in poverty a person is often trapped in it. Being in poverty and being unable to escape from it is called the poverty trap.

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Causes of Poverty

  • The cycle of deprivation
  • Being dependent upon the state
  • Lack of employment
  • Lack of education
  • Caring for others
  • Being homeless
  • Being elderly, sick or disabled
  • The poverty trap
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The effects of poverty

  • Deprivation
  • Lack of leisure pursuits and activities
  • Stigma and lack of status
  • Inadequate housing conditions
  • Ill health
  • Locality
  • Strain on individuals and relationship
  • Finances
  • Social exclusion
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Groups most at risk of poverty

  • The unemployed
  • The low paid
  • Single parent families
  • The sick and disabled
  • The elderly
  • Young teenagers
  • Ethnic minorities and refugees
  • The illiterate and poorly educated
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Employment and unemployment

Unemployment is the lack of employment or the inability to find work

Workless households conatains at leats one person of working age but no one in employment

The economically active are people aged 16 years or over who are either employed or unemployed but want to work.

The economically inactive are those aged 16 years or over who are out of work and are either not seeking wor or unavailable to start work.

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Patterns of employment and unemployment

  • Education
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Technology
  • Contracts
  • Immigration
  • Job Type
  • Self-employment
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Groups vulnerable to unemployment

  • Young people
  • Ethnic minorities
  • Disabled
  • Lone Parents
  • Individuals over 50 years
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The effects of unemployment

  • Self-respec and identity
  • Confidence
  • Financial security
  • Stimulation and enjoyment
  • Oppurtunities and new skills
  • Leisure time
  • Social relationships
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The effects of unemployment

  • Self-respect and identity
  • Confidence
  • Financial security
  • Stimulation and enjoyment
  • Oppurtunities and new skills
  • Leisure time
  • Social relationships
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Effects of unemployment on society

  • More social problems
  • Decline in the local economy
  • More social exclusion and conflict in society
  • Demand on health and voluntary services
  • Demand for welfare benefits
  • Insecurity for those in work
  • More scapegoating
  • Lower aspirations and oppurtunities
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Support services available to the unemployment

  • Jobseeker's allowance
  • Income support
  • Housing benefit
  • Job grants
  • Government employment schemes- Compulsory schemes, Voluntary schemes :
  • Work-based learning for adults
  • Programme centres or job clubs
  • Work trials
  • Training schemes
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