History - Factors in medicine

Info on the factors involved in medicine through time.

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Science & Technology

  • Microscope - was developed but wasn't strong enough to see things like germs. Koch connected new kind of lens to microscope to photograph process.
  • The printing press 1454 - exact copies of drawings and facts could be made, so things were more accurate, and ideas could be spread more easily, mass printing meant many more copies, Vesalius could write and publish "The Fabric of the Human Body" 1543 - link - communication.
  • Slow progress in chemistry - didn't have the eqipment needed, couldn't develop new remedies and treatments (oxygen wasn't discovered until 1777)
  • Gunpowder - meant more opportunities for doctors to use surgery and experiment as there was new and more injuries and wounds.
  • Dyes - Koch stained germs with new industrial dyes to see them when he was studying germs that caused blood poisoning and septicaemia.
  • Roman aqueducts and baths - link - government and communication.
  • 1905ish - vaccines for tuberculosis
  • 1947 - drug development of cure.
  • 1910 - similar progress with vaccine for diphtheria.
  • 1940ish - immunisation campaign.
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Religion

  • Evil spirits - egyptians and the prehistoric
  • After life - Egyptians
  • Angry gods - Greeks
  • Asclepions - thought gods healed them there, but it was healthier to be there anyway
  • Plague - flagellants thought it was punishment from God, couldn't be cured as people thought it was God

The church:

  • Helped:
  • Spread ideas and educated people
  • provided care for those who needed it
  • Used Galen's ideas
  • Hindered:
  • prevented dissection until 1400ish
  • prevented new ideas - Galen's fitted their teachings
  • ccontrolled education and banned books so people weren't told anything that suggested there weren't supernatural explanations.
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War 1

  • Romans saw that excersised soldiers were healthier and fitter then others.
  • Galen spent time at a Roman army training camp, as there were plenty of wounds and injuries to heal. Roman army hospitals.
  • The fall of the Roman Empire was a cause of regress and a hindrance in the progress of medicine.
  • Gives wounds that need treating so more opportunity for doctors to treat patients - link - gunpowder (technology) & Pare's new method of healing wounds with ointments and ligatures (chance)
  • Can destroy travel and ommunication, stopping ideas and info spreading.
  • Increased the need for medicine.
  • Nightingale - improved the conditions in hospitals in the war.
  • Meant skin grafts and plastic surgery happened for soldiers who got disfigurements - Gillies set up places where soldiers could have faces etc "restored".
  • Koch and Pasteur - competitive as their research was just after the Franco-Prussian war. This meant their governments funded the research and gave them money to to do it before the other country - link - government.
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War 2

  • Gov alarmed when 38% of volunteers for Boer war were unfit to be soldiers - link - government.
  • Health services reorganised in WW2 to cope with high numbers of casualties from bombing.
  • WW2: developments - blood could be stored longer, burn treating techniques; rationing meant eating more healthily; antibiotics - penicillin; immunisation awareness; NHS
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Chance

Pare ran out of boiling oil when treating soldiers' wounds, so used turpentine, egg yolk and oil of roses instead, and tied up the ligatures with silk thread instead of cauterising - link - microscopes (technology) couldn't see germs on silk thread so they got infected.

The Great Fire of London destroyed areas infected with the plague and got rid of some diseases.

Jenner found farmers and milkmaids who didn't have smallpox after they had had cowpox.

Romans avoided swampy and marshy areas, especially the army, because of miasma and they didn't look clean - they were close with the idea of miasma.

Pasteur found the cure to chicken cholera when his assistant left an experiment out and went on holiday.

Fleming discovered penicillin when he was looking through old experiments - he was disorganised but it proved to be a good thing.

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Government & Communication 1

  • French and German governments respectively funded Pasteur and Koch, as they were rivals. This also meant communication to find out what the other one had done.
  • Romans - aqueducts and baths - link - science & technology.
  • Public Health Act - 19th century
  • National Insurance Act of 1911 - Workers and employers made weekly payments to a central fund which was used to give workers sickness benefit and free medical care BUT women, children and ill couldn't benefit, only employed.
  • Compulsory vaccinations - 1852 - people didn't like it as hadn't been forced to have medication before.
  • Start of NHS - 1948 - William Beveridge published a report wanting to tackle the 5 giants, Aneurin Bevan was health minister, but faced 3 main problems.
  • There were new methods of communicating and sharing ideas and knowledge.
  • Welfare reforms - people generally looked after by government better.
  • Set up comittee on physical deterioration and found: overcrowding, pollution, lack of medical inspections and nurseries. Addressed these probs.
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Government & Communication 2

  • Stopped tobacco being sold to children, compulsory training for midwives 1902, meals for schoolchildren 1906, health visitors and medical checks 1907, slum clearance programs 1930.
  • WW2 - gov educated people about basic hygiene and health, and targetted immunisation as worried about decreased population.
  • WW1 - Homes for Heroes campaign - 1/4million+ houses funded by gov in 4 yrs.
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