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Federal Opposition…read more

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Eisenhower 1953-1961
· Help
· Hinder
· Thought black campaigns will cause more
problems and harm than help.
· Cause resentment amongst the whites
· Believed time change would happen in time…read more

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Kennedy 1961-1963
· Help
· Horrified by violence in freedom rides, asked the campaign to
· Encouraged to focus on voters registration campaign instead
· Led to the voter education project, offered grants to those who
abandoned direct action to focus on voters registration.
· Hinder
· Tried to keep fed government out of the struggles
· resisted sending troops to protect freedom riders
· Only claimed to support civil rights bill after Birmingham
campaign…read more

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Johnson 1963-1969
· Help
· Believed that further voter registration campaigns
better than direct actions,
· Better focus for the civil rights movement than kings
later focus on wide range of social and economic
problems in the north
· Hinder
· Turned away from the civil rights act when king
criticized the Vietnam war
· Believed the campaigns were too proactive…read more

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Opposition from congress
· Help
· Hinder
· Southern democrats and republicans tried weakening the civil
rights act 1957, 1960 and 1968
· E.g. Filibuster: Thurmond, longest one-person filibuster in
American history to kill the 1957 bill
· Democrats working in teams for 125 hours to Block the 1960 bill
· Congress also weakened the 1968 civil rights in such a way that
the new rights could not be enforced by federal gov…read more

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